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CHAPTER 3 ESSENTIAL UNIX (AND LINUX) FOR THE ORACLE DBA
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Note If you add the PS1 variable to your .cshrc file (I explain how to do this later in the Customizing Your Environment section), every time you open a new shell, it ll have your customized prompt. The ability to change the prompt is useful if you re managing many different databases via UNIX. You can amend the prompt to reflect the database you re working on at any given time. For example, when you re working in an inventory system, the prompt can display invent>. That way, you won t accidentally execute a command in the wrong database.
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Sometimes you want to locate a file, but you aren t sure where it might be located in the file system. The whereis command, of course, is of help only if you are locating commands, not files. To find out where a file or a directory is, you can use the find command, as shown here: $ pwd /u01/app/oracle $ find . -name bill.sql -print ./dba/bill.sql $ In this example, the find command informs you that the bill.sql file is located in the /u01/ app/oracle/dba directory. Note that there is a dot after the find keyword, indicating that a recursive search is made from the present directory every directory and subdirectory under the present directory will be searched. If you want to search from a specific directory, you need to specify that in the command. In the following example, the find command starts its search from the root (/) file system and prints the location of the test.txt file to the screen, if it finds it: $ find / -name test.txt -print
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Controlling the Output of Commands
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Sometimes a command will produce more output than can fit on the screen. You can control the output of a command in a couple of ways. The more command will show you the contents of a file, one screen at a time. Just press Enter to see the next screen of the file: $ more test.txt The pipe command (|) enables you to pass the output of one command as input to another command. In the following example, the | operator takes the ps -ef command s output (which is the list of all processes that are currently running on your system) and passes it to the grep command as a list, to search for all processes that contain the word Oracle : $ ps -ef | grep Oracle This example also demonstrates the use of multiple commands at once.
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As you know, you can use the vi editor to read a file as well as write to it. However, in some cases you may want to just read the contents of a file. The cat command lets you do so, as shown here: $ cat test.ksh #!/bin/ksh VAR1=1
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CHAPTER 3 ESSENTIAL UNIX (AND LINUX) FOR THE ORACLE DBA
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while do done $
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[ $VAR1 -lt 100 ] echo "value of VAR1 is : $VAR1" ((VAR1=VAR1+1))
Note
You can also use the page command to peruse files.
Different or Same Files
The diff command compares two files, returns the line(s) that are different, and tells you how to make the files the same. Here s an example: $ diff test.one test.two 0a1 > New Test. This diff command output tells you that if you add the line New Test to the test.one file, you can make it identical to the test.two file. The first character, 0, is the line number to edit in test.one; the a indicates that the line should be added to test.one to match the first line, 1, of test.two.
UNIX Variables
There are two main types of variables in a UNIX or Linux system: user-created variables and shell variables. Let s briefly look at how you use both kinds of variables.
User-Created Variables
A user can create a variable and initialize it by providing a value for it. The variable name must consist of letters and numbers, and it must start with a letter. You can also use the export command to export variables, so that any shell you create in your current session can make use of your variables. Here s an example of a user-created variable (note how echoing the variable itself prints just the variable, not its value to show the variable s value, you must precede the variable s name with the $ sign in your echo command): $ database=nicko $ echo database database $ echo $database nicko $ In this example, I first created a new variable called database and assigned it the value of nicko . I then used the echo command to print the value of the database variable, and the echo command just prints the string database . The second time I used the echo command, I added the dollar sign ($) in front of the name of the variable ($database). When I did this, the value of the variable database was shown as nicko . To remove the value of the database variable, simply set it to null, as shown here: $ database= $ echo $database $
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