BACKING UP DATABASES in Font

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CHAPTER 15 BACKING UP DATABASES
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Open and Closed Backups
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Online or open (or hot/warm) backups are backups you make while the database is open and accessible to users. You can make an online backup of the entire database (or a tablespace or data file) as long as the database is being run in archivelog mode. You can t make an online backup if the database is running in noarchivelog mode. A closed backup of a database, also called a cold backup, is made while the database is shut down. A closed backup is always consistent, as long as the database wasn t shut down with the SHUTDOWN ABORT command.
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Remember that if the backup is open (online) or if it closed (offline) but inconsistent, you may need to use archived redo logs to make the database consistent.
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The decision about whether you should make a closed backup or an open backup depends on business requirements. Business requirements dictate the uptime levels, which are then encapsulated in the service level agreement (SLA). If your SLA requires that your database be up 24/7, you must make online backups. On the other hand, if your organization allows you a backup window that will enable you to bring the database down, you can schedule closed backups. The frequency of closed backups and the number of redo logs produced by the database are both factors in the time it takes to recover the database. If you are performing closed backups on a weekly basis, you may have up to six days worth of archived logs to apply to the database backup during recovery (in the worst case).
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Physical and Logical Backups
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Technically speaking, you can divide Oracle backups into logical and physical backups. Logical backups are backups made using the Data Pump Export utility, and they contain logical objects like tables and procedures. These backups are in proprietary binary form, and their data can be extracted only by using Oracle s own Data Pump Import utility. Physical backups refer to the backing up of the key Oracle database files: data files, archived redo logs, and control files. Physical backups are made on disk or on tape drives. This chapter discusses physical backups, which are the cornerstone or Oracle s recovery strategy when confronted with a major loss of data. Logical files are an adjunct, not an alternative, to physical backups.
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Backup Levels
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Following are the levels at which you can perform Oracle database backups: Whole database: You back up all files including the control file. This level is applicable to both archivelog and noarchivelog modes of operation. Tablespace backups: You back up all the data files belonging to a tablespace. Tablespace backups are applicable only in the archivelog mode. Data file backups: You back up a single data file. Data file backups are valid in the archivelog mode only.
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Backup Guidelines
Regardless of your SLA and your recovery requirements, some general guidelines regarding backup processes will help you avoid a recovery in most cases. After all, the best strategy for recovery is to
CHAPTER 15 BACKING UP DATABASES
avoid having to do one by having an ironclad backup and data protection system in place. The guidelines are as follows: Build redundancy into your systems by using RAID-based storage systems, which will let you mask individual disk failures. Perform backups at frequent intervals to reduce your recovery time. Maintain offsite storage of your backups with a reliable vendor. The tapes that you store offsite should be part of a regular recovery testing program. Run any database deemed to contain useful data for the organization in archivelog mode. You would run a database in noarchivelog mode only when you don t care about the up-tothe-minute recoverability of the data. Multiplex the control files on separate disk drives managed by different disk controllers. Multiplexing means that Oracle will automatically maintain more than one copy of a file. For example, when you specify two copies of the Oracle control file, Oracle will write to both the control files. Mirror the control files in addition to using the multiplexing offered by Oracle.
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