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To make a closed, or cold, backup, the database must have been shut down cleanly through a normal, immediate, or transactional shutdown. You need to back up the entire set of files necessary to restore the database: the data files, online redo log files, and control files. Technically, you need only one control file to restore the database, but because the init.ora file or the SPFILE refers to multiple control files, you might as well back up all the multiplexed copies of the control files. You first get a list of the files in each category, and you then copy the files to the target. In the following sections, you ll learn how you to back up the three main types of files involved in a whole closed backup.
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Backing Up the Data Files
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You can get the list of all the data files in your database by using the following query: SQL> SELECT file_name FROM dba_data_files; You can then use the UNIX cp command (or the Windows copy command) to copy these data files to whatever location you want. You may first copy them to an operating system file, and later on copy those files to a tape device, so you can store them offsite. For example, in UNIX, you may use the following command to back up the files: $ cp /u01/orcl/oradata/data_01.dbf /u09/orcl/oradata/data_01.dbf
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Backing Up the Online Redo Log Files
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You ll need to back up all the online redo log files when you perform a closed backup. You can get the list of online redo files by making the following query: SQL> SELECT member FROM v$logfile; MEMBER -------------------------------------------------C:\ORACLENT\ORADATA\HELPME\REDO03.LOG C:\ORACLENT\ORADATA\HELPME\REDO02.LOG C:\ORACLENT\ORADATA\HELPME\REDO01.LOG SQL> Since you are performing a whole closed backup here, the backups are consistent; that is, when you shut down the database, the data files are all consistent and don t need recovery on startup.
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CHAPTER 15 BACKING UP DATABASES
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Thus, the restored online backup logs aren t really useful for recovery. So, you don t really need to back up these online redo log files. However, you ll need redo log files to start the restored instance, so you might as well use these copies of the online redo log files to start your instance.
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You can find the control file names and their location by querying the V$CONTROLFILE view: SQL> SELECT name FROM v$controlfile; NAME --------------------------------------------------C:\ORACLENT\ORADATA\HELPME\CONTROL01.CTL C:\ORACLENT\ORADATA\HELPME\CONTROL02.CTL C:\ORACLENT\ORADATA\HELPME\CONTROL03.CTL SQL>
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A Simple Cold Backup Script
Scripts for cold backups are fairly simple. Because you re doing a backup while the database is shut down, the backup process boils down to copying all the necessary files using the operating system copy utilities. Listing 15-8 shows a sample cold backup script. Listing 15-8. A User-Managed Cold Backup Script #!/bin/ksh ORACLE_SID=$1 export ORACLE_SID export ORAENV_ASK=NO BACKUP_DIR=/test01/app/oracle . oraenv sqlplus -s system/remorse1 << EOF SET HEAD OFF FEED OFF ECHO OFF TRIMSPOOL ON LINESIZE 200 SPOOL /u01/app/oracle/dba/cold_backup.ksh SELECT 'cp ' ||file_name|| ' ${BACKUP_DIR}' from sys.dba_data_files; SELECT 'cp ' ||name || ' ${BACKUP_DIR}' from V$controlfile; SELECT 'cp ' ||member|| ' ${BACKUP_DIR}' from V$logfile; SPOOL OFF; EXIT; EOF When you run the preceding commands, the output will be cold_backup.ksh, which you can then make into an executable script and schedule for regular execution.
Making a Whole Open Backup
There s a world of difference between making closed backups and open (or hot) backups. Open backups imply that users are changing data while you re backing up files, and this leads to the use of more complex mechanisms on behalf of the Oracle server to perform the backups. You need to back up all the data files, control files, and archived redo logs for a complete online database backup. You use the normal operating system copy commands to achieve this, but because the database is actually running, you need to add some other commands to make the backups valid and consistent. To understand this, it s necessary to understand what happens within the database during an online backup. When you first prepare the tablespace for the backup by issuing the BEGIN BACKUP command, Oracle notes the SCNs in the data file headers and freezes them. In other words, the data file header
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