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Recovering a Data File
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The procedures for recovering from the loss of a data file depend on the type of tablespace the data file belongs to. You can use the dynamic performance view V$RECOVER_FILE to determine the files you need to recover. Let s see what happens when your instance encounters media errors, assuming you are operating in the archivelog mode. If your instance encounters a read error and can t read a data file, you ll see an operating system error stating this fact, but the database will continue to operate. When the
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CHAPTER 16 DATABASE RECOVERY
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database tries writing the file header during a checkpoint, a write error will be issued. If the instance encounters a write error and can t write to a System or undo tablespace data file, the instance will immediately shut down. If the write error pertains to any other tablespace, the database will take that data file offline the other data files in the tablespace containing this data file will remain online. Your job then is to restore and recover the affected data file. But first, you must take the tablespace offline and then bring it online when the recovery is complete. The following discussion deals with the loss of a data file from a non-System tablespace.
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Using RMAN to Recover a Data File
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The recovery process using RMAN is much simpler than the user-managed recovery technique. First of all, you don t need to tell RMAN where to get the backup file from it identifies the correct file from its recovery catalog. All you have to do is tell RMAN to restore and recover the necessary tablespace. You may want to take the tablespace offline, because your database is open. Then you run RMAN, which restores the data files and recovers the data files by using the archived redo logs. RMAN knows what archived logs to apply to the restored data file. Let s use a RUN block to perform our data file recovery, as shown in Listing 16-4. Listing 16-4. Recovering a Data File Using RMAN RMAN> RUN { 2> sql "alter tablespace sysaux offline"; 3> restore datafile 'C:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\10.1.0\ORADATA\NICK\SYSAUX01.DBF'; 4> recover datafile 'C:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\10.1.0\ORADATA\NICK\SYSAUX01.DBF'; 5> SQL "alter tablespace sysaux online"; 6> } sql statement: alter tablespace sysaux offline starting full resync of recovery catalog full resync complete Starting restore at 12-JUL-05 using channel ORA_DISK_1 channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete Finished restore at 12-JUL-05 Starting recover at 12-JUL-05 using channel ORA_DISK_1 starting media recovery . . . media recovery complete Finished recover at 12-JUL-05 sql statement: alter tablespace sysaux online starting full resync of recovery catalog full resync complete RMAN> RMAN automatically applies any necessary archive logs without prompting from you, and it brings the data file online again.
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User-Managed Recovery of a Data File
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If the database instance crashes or can t be started without an error, as the result of a missing or damaged data file, the identity of the data file is obvious. However, you can lose a data file and continue to have an open database. You can use the following statement to find out which files may need a recovery:
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CHAPTER 16 DATABASE RECOVERY
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SQL> SELECT file#, status, error, recover, tablespace_name, name FROM V$DATAFILE_HEADER WHERE RECOVER = 'YES' OR (RECOVER IS NULL AND ERROR IS NOT NULL); The various possibilities that can be shown in the output of the preceding query can be interpreted as follows: If the query results in no rows selected, then none of the data files need recovery. If the ERROR column shows NULL, and the RECOVER column says YES, you can recover without having to restore a copy of the data file. If the ERROR column is not NULL, there may be a media problem. Similarly, if the RECOVER column doesn t show the value NO, there may be a problem with the disk. In all the previous cases, first check whether the problem is temporary and can be fixed without replacing the media. If the problem isn t temporary, you ll have to perform media recovery. A NULL value in the RECOVER column indicates a hardware error. You can also use the following query of the V$RECOVER_FILE view to find out the file number, status, and other error information for data files: SQL> SELECT file#, error, online_status, change#, time FROM V$RECOVER_FILE; To recover from the loss of a data file while the database is open, you must first take the affected tablespace offline. You must then restore the data file from a backup and recover the tablespace. Here s a summary of the commands you need to use: SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE sales01 OFFLINE IMMEDIATE; SQL> HOST cp /test01/app/oracle/backup/sales01.dbf /test01/app/oracle/oradata/finance/sales01.dbf; SQL> RECOVER TABLESPACE sales01; SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE sales01 ONLINE; The ALTER TABLESPACE OFFLINE and ONLINE commands ensure that users don t access the tablespace during the recovery process.
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