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Recovering a Data File Without a Backup
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Suppose you add a new data file and users consequently create some objects in it. Before you back up your database over the weekend, the new file is damaged and you need to recover the data. The archived redo logs since the last backup will contain the information regarding the lost file and will enable you to recover the data. The following sections illustrate the procedures involved.
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Using RMAN to Recover a File Without a Backup
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Suppose you first notice the damaged file when you access the lost or damaged file and get the following error: SQL> CREATE TABLE x (name varchar2 (30)); create table x (name varchar2 (30)) * ERROR at line 1: ORA-01116: error in opening database file 5 ORA-01110: data file 5: '/test02/app/oracle/oradata/finance1/test01.dbf'
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CHAPTER 16 DATABASE RECOVERY
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Here are the steps you would follow to fix the problem: 1. Take the affected data file offline: RMAN> SQL "alter database datafile 2> ''/test01/app/oracle/oradata/remorse/sales_01.dbf'' offline"; sql statement: alter database datafile ''/test01/app/oracle/oradata/remorse/sales_01.dbf'' offline RMAN> 2. Create a new data file with the same name as the damaged offline data file: RMAN> sql "alter database create datafile 2> ''/test02/app/oracle/oradata/remorse/sales01.dbf'' "; sql statement: alter database create datafile ''/test02/app/oracle/oradata/remorse/sales01.dbf" RMAN> 3. Recover the new data file. RMAN will retrieve data from the archived redo logs, so the new data file is identical to the one that was lost: RMAN> RECOVER DATAFILE '/test01/app/oracle/oradata/remorse/sales_01.dbf'; Starting recover at 30-JUN-05 using channel ORA_DISK_1 using channel ORA_DISK_2 using channel ORA_DISK_3 using channel ORA_DISK_4 starting media recovery media recovery complete Finished recover at 30-JUN-05 RMAN> 4. Bring the new data file online: RMAN> SQL "alter database datafile 2> ''/test02/app/oracle/oradata/finance1/test01.dbf'' online"; sql statement: alter database datafile ''/test02/app/oracle/oradata/remorse/sales01.dbf'' online RMAN> EXIT
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User-Managed Recovery of a File Without a Backup
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The manual procedure for recovering a file without prior backups is very straightforward, again assuming you have all the archived redo logs available. You first create a new file with the same name as the lost file, and then you use the archived logs (if necessary) to recover the data that was in that file.
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Cloning a Database
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DBAs routinely refresh development and test databases, and they will sometimes need to clone databases to test backup and recovery strategies. If you have a small database, a simple Data Pump export/import will suffice, but most databases aren t amenable to this procedure. You can clone databases in three different ways: By using the RMAN DUPLICATE command By using the OEM Database Control By manually performing the copy with SQL*Plus
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CHAPTER 16 DATABASE RECOVERY
Note
The main purpose of cloning databases is not to create a failover database during a crisis you use standby databases for that purpose.
Using RMAN to Clone a Database
RMAN provides the DUPLICATE command, which uses the backups of a database to create a new database. The files are restored to the target database, after which an incomplete recovery is performed and the new database is opened with the OPEN RESETLOGS command. The good thing about using RMAN is that all the preceding steps are performed automatically, without any user intervention. The duplicate database can be an exact replica of the original, or it can contain only a subset of it. The following steps are involved in cloning a database: 1. Create a new init.ora file for the auxiliary database. The init.ora file should have the following parameters, with the data files and log file parameters changed to ensure that the original database files aren t used for the new database: DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT: This parameter transforms the target data file names to the duplicate database data file names. LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT: This parameter converts the target database redo log file names to the duplicate database redo log file names. 2. Start the target database instance. You must start the target database instance in the nomount mode. 3. Connect the recovery catalog to the target database and the auxiliary database: RMAN> CONNECT target / catalog rman/rman1@catalog_db auxiliary sys/password@auxiliary_db 4. Issue the RMAN DUPLICATE command, as follows: RMAN> DUPLICATE TARGET DATABASE TO auxiliary_db /* actual name of auxiliary database here */ pfile =/u01/app/oracle/10.2.0/db_1/dbs/init_auxiliary_db; The preceding is a simplified presentation of the database duplication process using RMAN, and you should refer to the Oracle documentation for complete details about duplicating a database. When you issue the DUPLICATE TARGET DATABASE TO . . . command, as shown previously, RMAN will shut down the auxiliary database and start it up again. It then performs the following steps: Restores all the backed-up files of the target database to the destination auxiliary database, using all available archived redo logs Opens the duplicated database with the RESETLOGS option
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