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CHAPTER 21 IMPROVING DATABASE PERFORMANCE: SQL QUERY OPTIMIZATION
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You can also differentiate the trace file output by a SQL Trace execution from the other files in the dump directory, by its size these trace files are much larger in general than the other files output to the directory. These trace files are detailed and complex. Fortunately, the easy-to-run TKPROF utility formats the output into a readable format. The TKPROF utility uses the trace file as the input, along with several parameters you can specify. Table 21-1 shows the main TKPROF parameters you can choose to produce the format that suits you. If you type tkprof at the command prompt, you ll see a complete listing of all the parameters that you can specify when you invoke TKPROF. Table 21-1. TKPROF Command-Line Arguments
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FILENAME EXPLAIN RECORD WAITS SORT TABLE SYS PRINT INSERT
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The input trace file produced by SQL Trace The EXPLAIN PLAN for the SQL statements Creates a SQL script with all the nonrecursive SQL statements Records a summary of wait events Presents sort data based on one or more items, such as PRSCPU (CPU time parsing), PRSELA (elapsed time parsing), and so on The name of the tables into which the TKPROF utility temporarily puts the execution plans Enables and disables listing of SQL statements issued by SYS Lists only a specified number of SQL statements instead of all statements Creates a script that stores the trace information in the database
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Let s trace a session by a user who is executing two SELECT statements, one using tables with indexes and the other using tables without any indexes. In this example, you re using only a few parameters, choosing to run TKPROF with default sort options. The first parameter is the name of the output file and the second is the name for the TKPROF-formatted output. You re specifying that you don t want any analysis of statements issued by the user SYS. You re also specifying that the EXPLAIN PLAN for the statement be shown in addition to the other statistics.
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By just typing tkprof at the operating system prompt, you can get a quick help guide to the usage of the TKPROF utility.
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$ tkprof finance_ora_16340.trc test.txt sys=no explain=y TKPROF: Release 10.1.0.2.0 - Production on Sat Apr 30 14:32:42 2005 Copyright (c) 1982, 2004, Oracle. $ All rights reserved.
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The test.txt file contains the output of the SQL trace, now nicely formatted for you by the TKPROF utility.
Examining the Formatted Output File
Listing 21-11 shows the top portion of the test.txt file, which explains the key terms used by the utility.
CHAPTER 21 IMPROVING DATABASE PERFORMANCE: SQL QUERY OPTIMIZATION
Listing 21-11. The Top Part of the TKPROF-Formatted Trace File TKPROF: Release 10.1.0.2.0 - Production on Sat Apr 30 14:42:45 2005 Copyright (c) 1982, 2004, Oracle. All rights reserved. Trace file: finance_ora_16340.trc Sort options: default ******************************************************************************** count = number of times OCI procedure was executed cpu = cpu time in seconds executing elapsed = elapsed time in seconds executing disk = number of physical reads of buffers from disk query = number of buffers gotten for consistent read current = number of buffers gotten in current mode (usually for update) rows = number of rows processed by the fetch or execute call ***************************************************************************************** Each TKPROF report shows the following information for each SQL statement issued during the time the user s session was traced: The SQL statement Counts of parse, execute, and fetch (for SELECT statements) calls Count of rows processed CPU seconds used I/O used Library cache misses Optional execution plan Row-source operation listing A report summary analyzing how many similar and distinct statements were found in the trace file Let s analyze the formatted output created by TKPROF. Listing 21-12 shows the parts of the TKPROF output showing the parse, execute, and fetch counts. Listing 21-12. The Parse, Execute, and Fetch Counts SQL> select e.last_name,e.first_name,d.department_name from teste e,testd d where e.department_id=d.department_id; call count cpu elapsed disk query current rows ------- ------ ------ ---------- -- ---------- ---------- -------Parse 1 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 Execute 1 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 Fetch 17322 1.82 1.85 3 136 5 259806 ------- ------ -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------total 17324 1.82 1.85 3 136 5 259806 Misses in library cache during parse: 0 Optimizer goal: CHOOSE Parsing user id: 53
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