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Use the wait event views (wait interface) for examining current and recent performance issues in your instance. For comprehensive analysis of most performance problems, you need to use the ADDM, which analyzes the AWR hourly snapshots.
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Oracle wait interface analysis has garnered quite a bit of attention in the last few years. There are entire books dedicated to Oracle waits. I discuss the important performance topic of Oracle wait analysis later in this chapter, in the section Analyzing Instance Performance. Ideally, all sessions should be on the CPU, with zero time spent waiting for resources such as I/O. However, remember that every working instance will have some kind of wait. It s unrealistic to expect to work towards a
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CHAPTER 22 PERFORMANCE TUNING: TUNING THE INSTANCE
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zero wait system. The key question should not be whether you have any Oracle wait events occurring, but rather if there are excessive waits.
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Wait Events and Wait Classes
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Any time a server process waits for an event to complete, it s classified as a wait event. There are more than 860 Oracle wait events in Oracle Database 10g. The most common wait events are those caused by resource contention such as latch contention, buffer contention, and I/O contention. A wait class is a grouping of related wait events, and every wait event belongs to a wait class. Important wait classes include Administrative, Application, Concurrency, Configuration, Idle, Network, System I/O, and User I/O. For example, the Administrative wait class includes lock waits caused by row-level locking. The User I/O class of waits refers to waits for blocks to be read off a disk. Using wait classes helps you move quickly to the root cause of a problem in your database by limiting the focus of further analysis. Here s a summary of the main wait classes in Oracle Database 10g: Administrative: Waits caused by administrative commands, such as rebuilding an index, for example. Application: Waits due to the application code. Cluster: Waits related to Real Application Cluster management. Commit: Consists of the single wait event log file sync, which is a wait caused by commits in the database. Concurrency: Waits for database resources that are used for locking; for example, latches. Configuration: Waits caused by database or instance configuration problems, including a low shared-pool memory size, for example. Idle: Idle wait events indicate waits that occur when a session isn t active; for example, the 'SQL*Net message from client' wait event. Network: Waits incurred during network messaging. Other: Miscellaneous waits. Scheduler: Resource Manager-related waits. System I/O: Waits for background-process I/O, including the database writer background process (DBWR) wait for the db file parallel write event. Also included are archivelog related waits and redo log read-and-write waits. User I/O: Waits for user I/O. Includes the db file sequential read and db file scattered read events.
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Analyzing Instance Performance
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One of the first things you can do to measure instance performance efficiency is to determine the proportion of total time the database is spending working compared to the proportion of time it s merely waiting for resources. The V$SYSMETRIC view displays the system metric values for the most current time interval. The following query using the V$SYSMETRIC view reveals a database instance where waits are taking more time than the instance CPU usage time: SQL> SELECT METRIC_NAME, VALUE FROM V$SYSMETRIC WHERE METRIC_NAME IN ('Database CPU Time Ratio', 'Database Wait Time Ratio') AND INTSIZE_CSEC = (select max(INTSIZE_CSEC) from V$SYSMETRIC);
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CHAPTER 22 PERFORMANCE TUNING: TUNING THE INSTANCE
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METRIC_NAME VALUE -----------------------------------------------Database Wait Time Ratio 72 Database CPU Time Ratio 28 SQL> Once you realize that the total instance wait time ratio is much higher than the CPU time ratio, you can explore things further. Wait classes provide a quick way to figure out why the database instance is performing poorly. In the example shown in Listing 22-14, you can easily see that user I/O waits are responsible for most of the wait time. You can establish this fact by looking at the PCT_TIME column, which gives you the percentage of time attributable to each wait class. Total waits are often misleading, as you can see by looking at the NETWORK wait class. In percentage terms, network waits are only 1 percent, although total network waits constitute more than 51 percent of total waits in this instance. Listing 22-14. Determining Total Waits and Percentage Waits by Wait Class SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16* SELECT WAIT_CLASS, TOTAL_WAITS, round(100 * (TOT_WAITS / SUM_WAITS),2) PCT_TOTWAITS, ROUND((TIME_WAITED / 100),2) TOT_TIME_WAITED, round(100 * (TOT_TIME_WAITED / SUM_TIME),2) PCT_TIME FROM (select WAIT_CLASS, TOT_WAITS, TOT_TIME_WAITED FROM V$SYSTEM_WAIT_CLASS WHERE WAIT_CLASS != 'Idle'), (select sum(TOT_WAITS) SUM_WAITS, sum(TOT_TIME_WAITED) SUM_TIME from V$SYSTEM_WAIT_CLASS where WAIT_CLASS != 'Idle') ORDER BY PCT_TIME DESC; PCT_TOT_WAITS ------------45.07 2.67 .53 51.15 .01 .11 .09 .36 0 0 TOT_TIME_WAITED PCT_TIME --------------- -------46305770.5 84.42 5375324.17 9.8 1626254.9 2.96 547128.66 1 449945.5 .82 351043.3 .64 116029.85 .21 78783.64 .14 7.6 0 .15 0
WAIT_CLASS TOTAL_WAITS ------------- ----------User I/O 6649535191 Other 394490128 Concurrency 78768788 Network 7546925506 Application 2012092 Commit 15526036 Configuration 12898465 System I/O 53005529 Administrative 25 Scheduler 1925 10 rows selected. SQL>
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