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The SPFILE
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When you create a new database, you specify the initialization parameters for the Oracle instance in a special configuration file called the server parameter file, or SPFILE. You can also use an older version of the configuration file called the init.ora file, but Oracle recommends the use of the more sophisticated SPFILE. In the SPFILE, you specify the memory limits for the instance, the locations of the control files, whether and where the archived logs are stored, and other settings that determine the behavior of the Oracle database server. You can t, however, edit the SPFILE manually, as you could the init.ora file, since the SPFILE is a binary file. The SPFILE is always stored on the database server, thus preventing the proliferation of parameter files that sometimes occurs with the use of the init.ora file. By default, the SPFILE (and the init.ora file) is placed in the ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory in UNIX systems and the ORACLE_HOME\database directory in Windows systems. The ORACLE_HOME directory is the standard location for the Oracle executables.
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You ll find a detailed discussion of the SPFILE, including how to create one from your init.ora file, in 10, where you will learn about creating Oracle databases.
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Oracle allows you to change a number of the initialization parameters after you start up the instance; these are called dynamic initialization parameters. Unlike the traditional init.ora initialization file, the SPFILE can automatically and dynamically record the new values of dynamic parameters after you change them, ensuring that you don t forget to incorporate the changes. You can t change the rest of the parameters, referred to as static initialization parameters, dynamically. That is, you must restart your instance if you need to modify any of those parameters. You can use the V$SPPARAMETER data dictionary view to look at the initialization parameter values you have explicitly set in the SPFILE for your database. (The analogous view, if you are using the init.ora file, is the V$PARAMETER view.) In addition to the parameter values you set explicitly in the SPFILE, the V$SPPARAMETER view shows all the default values for all database configuration parameters (the values in effect in the instance right now).
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Sometimes you ll see references to undocumented or hidden Oracle parameters. These parameters usually have an underscore (_) prefix. Don t use them unless you re requested to do so by Oracle support experts or other trustworthy sources.
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The password file is an optional file in which you can specify the names of database users who were granted the special SYSDBA or SYSOPER administrative privileges, which enable them to perform privileged operations, such as starting, stopping, backing up, and recovering databases. 12 shows you how to create and maintain the password file.
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The Alert Log File
Every Oracle database has an alert log named alertdb_name.log (where db_name is the name of the database). The alert log captures major changes and events that occur during the running of the Oracle instance, including log switches, any Oracle-related errors, warnings, and other messages. In addition, every time you start up the Oracle instance, Oracle will list all your initialization parameters in the alert log, along with the complete sequence of the startup process. You can also use the alert log to automatically keep track of tablespaces that are created and datafiles that are added or resized.
CHAPTER 5 ORAC LE DATABA SE 1 1G AR CHITECTURE
The alert log can come in handy during troubleshooting it is usually the first place you should check to get an idea about what was happening inside the database when a problem occurred. In fact, Oracle support may ask you for a copy of the pertinent sections of the alert log during their analysis of database problems. In Oracle Database 11g, the recommended procedure is to create a diagnostic repository called the Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR), which is a one-stop location for storing all databaserelated errors, trace files, and dump files. If you set up the ADR by specifying the new initialization parameter DIAGNOSTIC_DEST, Oracle will create and maintain two alert log files, one in text format and the other in an XML format. Otherwise, Oracle puts the alert log in the location specified for the BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST initialization parameter. If you don t specify a value for this parameter, Oracle places the alert log in a default location. To see if there are any Oracle-related errors in your alert log, simply issue the following command (finance is the database name in this example): $ grep ORA- alert_finance.log ORA-1503 signalled during: CREATE CONTROLFILE SET DATABASE "FINANCE" RESETLOGS... ORA-1109 signalled during: ALTER DATABASE CLOSE NORMAL... ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments:[12333], [0], [0], [0], [], [], [], [] As you can see, several Oracle errors are listed in the alert log for the database finance. A regular scan of your database for all kinds of Oracle errors should be one of your daily database management tasks. You can easily schedule a script to scan the alert log and then e-mail you the results. You can also use the Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) Database Control (or the Grid Control) interface to quickly review any errors in your alert log files.
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