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A transaction can run as part of another transaction. In such cases, the parent transaction is called the main transaction, and the independent child transaction is called the autonomous transaction. An autonomous transaction is formally defined as an independent transaction that can be called from another transaction. Notice that although the child transaction is called from the parent transaction, it is independent of the parent transaction. Packages, procedures, functions, and triggers could all include transactions marked as autonomous. You have to include a directive in the main transaction so that Oracle will know you intend to use an autonomous transaction within the main transaction. The autonomous transaction can have its own ROLLBACK and COMMIT statements, just like normal transactions. The main transaction, by using an autonomous transaction, can pause and execute the autonomous transaction, and then continue from where it stopped. In other words, you leave the calling transaction s context, execute SQL statements that are part of the autonomous transaction, either commit or roll back your trans-
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C HAPTE R 8 ORA CLE TRA NSA CTION MAN AGEM ENT
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action, and resume the parent transaction upon returning to the calling transaction s context. Note that the autonomous transaction does not share transaction resources, such as locks, with the parent transaction. Autonomous transactions provide developers with the ability to create more fine-grained transactions, where a transaction will not be an all-or-nothing affair. You can have the nested autonomous transactions commit or roll back their transactions independent of the calling parent transaction.
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If you don t use an autonomous transaction, all the changes in your session will be committed or rolled back at once (when you issue a COMMIT or ROLLBACK statement). The autonomous transactions give you the ability to commit or roll back the subprogram s changes independent of the main program. Also note that if you don t commit or roll back an autonomous transaction, Oracle will issue an error message.
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Listing 8-7 provides a simple example of an autonomous transaction. Note that the PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION (a compiler directive) statement is instructing Oracle to mark the attached piece of code, the loans function, as autonomous. Listing 8-7. A Simple Autonomous Transaction SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE package lending AS function loans (user_id integer) return real; -- add additional functions and/or packages END lending; CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY lending AS function loans (user_id integer) return REAL IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION; loan_bal REAL; BEGIN --the code goes here END; -- any additional functions and/or packages go here END lending; SQL> Autonomous transactions provide you with a lot of flexibility. You can suspend the main transaction, run the autonomous transaction, and resume the processing of the main transaction. The autonomous transaction s committed changes are visible to the main transaction, because the default isolation level in Oracle is read committed, meaning that a transaction will see all the committed data. There can be many uses for autonomous transactions. For example, you can use the transactions to send error-logging messages. You can have a single procedure that will write error messages to an error log table and invoke this procedure as an autonomous transaction from a regular transaction. Listing 8-8 shows how to write error messages to a table. Listing 8-8. Writing Error Messages to a Table SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE error_log(error__msg in varchar2, procedure_name IN VARCHAR2 IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION; BEGIN INSERT INTO log_table (error_msg, procedure_name) VALUES (error_msg,procedure_name)); COMMIT;
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CHAPTER 8 ORAC LE TRANS AC TION MA NAG EMENT
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EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK; END; SQL> Autonomous transactions can serve other purposes in the Oracle database. For example, they can enable the handling of nonstandard PL/SQL coding issues, such as using DDL statements in triggers. Autonomous transactions also are useful in performing an audit of database queries and failed (unauthorized) database activity. Listing 8-9 shows an example in which the autonomous transaction feature is used to audit (presumably) unauthorized update activity. Even when a user is unsuccessful in the update attempt, the user s name can be successfully logged into an audit table if you code a simple pair of triggers that use the autonomous transaction feature. Listing 8-9. Using an Autonomous Transaction to Audit Database Activity SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER aud_bef_trig BEFORE INSERT ON emp FOR EACH ROW DECLARE PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION BEGIN INSERT INTO audit_employee VALUES ( :new.username, 'before insert', sysdate); COMMIT; END; SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER aud_aft_trig AFTER INSERT ON emp FOR EACH ROW DECLARE PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS TRANSACTION BEGIN INSERT INTO audit_emp VALUES ( :new.username, 'after insert', sysdate); COMMIT; END; SQL> Note that you can t always just use a pair of normal triggers to audit database activity because auditing data provided by the triggers won t be recorded if the triggering statement is rolled back.
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