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CHAPTER 12 US ER MA NAG EMENT A ND DA TABA SE S ECUR ITY
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Tip If you don t want a user to create any objects at all in the database, don t assign a quota on any tablespace. If it s an existing user with a specific quota on a tablespace, you can use the ALTER USER statement to set this quota to 0. When you use the ALTER USER statement to assign a quota of 0 on all tablespaces, any objects already created by the user will remain, but the user won t be able to create any new objects. The existing objects also cannot grow in size, since you revoked the tablespace quotas.
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Once the new user is given a space quota on a tablespace, the user can create database objects such as tables and indexes. By default, any objects a user creates will be placed in the user s default permanent tablespace (USERS in our example). The user can choose to create the objects in any tablespace, however, as long as the user has a space quota on that tablespace. If you want a user to have unlimited space usage rights in all tablespaces, you need to grant the user the UNLIMITED TABLESPACE privilege, as shown here: SQL> GRANT UNLIMITED TABLESPACE TO salapati; Grant succeeded. SQL> If you want a user to create his or her own tablespaces, you must enable the user to create a tablespace by using the GRANT CREATE TABLESPACE TO username command. Similarly, you must grant the DROP TABLESPACE privilege. If a user wishes to subsequently create database objects in a tablespace that he or she has created, the user won t need any space quotas on those tablespaces. You can see the individual tablespace quotas allocated to a user by using the DBA_TS_QUOTAS view, as shown here: SQL> SELECT tablespace_name, username, bytes FROM DBA_TS_QUOTAS; TABLESPACE ---------SYSAUX SYSAUX SYSAUX SYSAUX RMAN_TBSP SQL> USERNAME --------DMSYS OLAPSYS WK_TEST SYSMAN RMAN BYTES ---------196608 16252928 12582912 78577664 8585216
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As you can see, four different users, all owners of various Oracle components, have quotas in the Sysaux tablespace, and the user RMAN has a quota on a tablespace created exclusively for the Recovery Manager s use. Since they aren t mandatory, you can create a database without a default temporary tablespace or a default (permanent) tablespace. In such a case, you can assign both tablespaces explicitly when you create a new user. You can also assign a quota on the default permanent tablespace. Here s an example showing how to create a user by explicitly specifying the default tablespaces (temporary and permanent). The GRANT QUOTA clause gives the user a 500MB space allocation in the USERS tablespace so the user can create objects there: SQL> CREATE USER salapati IDENTIFIED BY sammyy1 TEMPORARY TABLESPACE TEMPTBS01 DEFAULT TABLESPACE USERS QUOTA 500M ON USERS; User created. SQL>
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CHAPT ER 12 USE R MA NAGEM ENT AN D DA TA BAS E S ECURITY
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If you omit the QUOTA clause, the new user can t use any space in the tablespace USERS, which is the default tablespace for the user. If you have created a permanent default tablespace, as recommended by Oracle, you can omit the DEFAULT TABLESPACE clause. If you haven t, you should specify the DEFAULT TABLESPACE clause; otherwise, the new user will be assigned the System tablespace as the default tablespace and that s not a good idea, since you don t want users possibly creating objects in the System tablespace.
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Altering a User
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You use the ALTER USER statement to alter a user in the database. Using this statement, you can do the following: Change a user s password. Assign tablespace quotas. Set and alter default and temporary tablespaces. Assign a profile and default roles. Here s an example showing how a DBA (or the user being altered) can use the ALTER USER command to change a user s password: SQL> SHOW USER USER is "SALAPATI" SQL> ALTER USER salapati IDENTIFIED BY sammyy1; User altered. SQL> Only a DBA or another user to whom you ve granted the ALTER USER privilege can change passwords with the ALTER USER statement. Users can also change their own passwords with the PASSWORD command in SQL*Plus, as shown here: SQL> PASSWORD Changing password for SALAPATI Old password: ********* New password: ********* Retype new password: ********* Password changed SQL> Whether users assign their own passwords or a DBA creates their passwords, a DBA won t ever be able to find out what any user s password is, since all passwords are stored in the encrypted form. However, I ll show you later in this chapter how to log in as another user by making use of the encrypted password.
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