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CHAPTER 3 ES SEN TIAL UN IX (AN D LINUX) FOR THE ORA CLE DBA
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Included among these directories and files are the system files, which are static, and user files. As a DBA, your main concern will be the Oracle software files and database files.
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You end your UNIX or Linux session by typing the word exit at the prompt, as follows: $ exit
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Overview of Basic UNIX Commands
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You can execute hundreds of commands at the command prompt. Don t get overwhelmed just yet, though: of the many commands available to you, you ll find that you ll only use a handful on a dayto-day basis. This section covers the basic commands you ll need to operate in the UNIX environment.
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Note If you need help using a command, you can type man at the command prompt, along with the name of the topic you re trying to get help with. For example, if you type in the expression man date, you ll receive information about the date command, examples of its use, and a lot of other good stuff. For more details, see the Getting Help: The man Command section later in this chapter.
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The UNIX shell has a few simple, built-in commands. The other commands are all in the form of executable files that are stored in a special directory called bin (short for binary ). Table 3-1 presents some of the more important UNIX commands that you ll need to know. The UNIX commands tend to be cryptic, but some should be familiar to Windows users. The commands cd and mkdir in Windows, for example, have the same meaning in UNIX. Many UNIX commands have additional options or switches (just like their MS-DOS counterparts) that extend the basic functionality of the command, and Table 3-1 shows the most useful command switches.
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Table 3-1. Basic UNIX Commands
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Command
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Description
The cd command enables you to change directories. The format is cd new-location. The example shown here takes you to the /tmp directory from your current working directory. The date command gives you the time and date.
Example
$ cd /tmp $
date
$ date Sat Mar 26 16:08:54 CST 2005 $ $ echo Buenos Dias Buenos Dias $
echo
With the echo command, you can display text on your screen.
CH APT ER 3 ES SEN TI AL UN IX (A ND LINU X) F O R TH E O RA CLE D BA
Table 3-1. Basic UNIX Commands (Continued)
Command
grep
Description
The grep command is a pattern-recognition command. It enables you to see if a certain word or set of words occurs in a file or the output of any other command. In the example shown here, the grep command is checking whether the word alapati occurs anywhere in the file test.txt. (The answer is yes.) The grep command is very useful when you need to search large file structures to see if they contain specific information. If the grepped word or words aren t in the file, you ll simply get the UNIX prompt back, as shown in the second example. The history command gives you the commands entered previously by you or other users. To see the last three commands, type history -3. The default number of commands shown depends on the specific operating system, but it is usually between 15 and 20. Each command is preceded in the output by a number, indicating how far back it was used. When you are first assigned an account, you ll get a username and password combination. You are free to change your password by using the passwd command. Use the pwd command to find out your present working directory or to simply confirm your current location in the file system. In the example shown here, the uname command tells you that the machine s symbolic name is prod5 and it s an HP-UX machine. The -a option tells UNIX to give all the details of the system. If you omit the -a option, UNIX will just respond with HP-UX. As the name of this command suggests, whereis will give you the exact location of the executable file for the utility in question. The which command enables you to find out which version (of possibly multiple versions) of a command the shell is using. You should run this command when you run a common command, such as cat, and receive somewhat different results than you expect. The which command helps you verify whether you are indeed using the correct version of the command.
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