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Auditing Database Usage
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Just because you have set up a sophisticated system of access controls using privileges, roles, views, and even fine-grained security policies doesn t guarantee that database security won t be breached. Auditing database usage lets you know whether your access control mechanisms are indeed working as designed. Auditing involves monitoring and recording (selected) users database activity. Oracle s built-in auditing features allow you to track the changes made to database objects. You can audit the granting of privileges within the database, as well as non-DML and non-DDL changes, such as database startup and shutdown events. Auditing user activity can potentially lead to a large amount of data to keep track of, but fortunately, Oracle offers you a lot of control over what type of activities you want to audit. You can audit just at the session level or at the entire database level. Oracle makes a broad distinction between standard auditing and fine-grained auditing. Standard auditing is based on statement-, privilege-, and object-level auditing. Fine-grained auditing deals with data access at a granular level, with actions based on content, such as value > 100,000. I discuss standard auditing first, and then fine-grained auditing.
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CHAPT ER 12 USE R MA NAGEM ENT AN D DA TA BAS E S ECURITY
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Standard Auditing
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Oracle Database 11g lets you audit database use at three different levels: statement, privilege, and object. A statement-level audit specifies the auditing of all actions on any type of object. For example, you can specify that the database audit all actions on tables by using the AUDIT TABLE statement. A privilege-level audit tracks actions that stem from system privileges. You can audit all actions that involve the use of a granted privilege, such as auditing all CREATE ANY PROCEDURE statements. Finally, an object-level audit monitors actions such as UPDATE, DELETE, and INSERT statements on a specific table, so you could audit all DELETEs on the hr_employees table. For each of the three levels of auditing, you can choose to audit either by session or by access. If you audit by session, Oracle will log just one record for all similar statements that fall under the purview of auditing. If you audit by access, Oracle writes a record for each access. You can also decide to log only whether a certain action failed or succeeded by using the WHENEVER SUCCESSFUL and the WHENEVER NOT SUCCESSFUL auditing options. When the operation is unsuccessful, it s usually an indication that the user doesn t have privileges to perform the operation. You ll want to know who is attempting such unauthorized operations.
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Tip One of the common arguments against the use of Oracle database auditing is that it will consume a lot of space in the database. If you spend time analyzing why you are auditing, you can limit the amount of data written to the audit trail. By using a focused auditing policy that targets only vital data, rather than systemwide auditing, you can limit the auditing output to a manageable amount. You may also decide to turn on auditing only if you encounter questionable activity in the database.
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In order for you to audit any user activity within the database, and even attempt to log into the database, you need to enable auditing by specifying the AUDIT_TRAIL parameter in your init.ora file. Audit records contain the audit information, such as the audited user, the type of operation, and the date and time of the operation, and the AUDIT_TRAIL parameter specifies what is done with these records. The parameter can take the following values: NONE: Disables database auditing. NONE is the default value for this parameter. OS: Specifies that Oracle will write the audit records to an operating system file (operating system audit trail). DB: Specifies that Oracle will write the audit records to the database audit trail, viewable as DBA_AUDIT_TRAIL (stored in the SYS.AUD$ table). DB, EXTENDED: Specifies that Oracle will send all audit records to the database audit trail (SYS.AUD$), and in addition, populates the SQLBIND and SQLTEXT CLOB columns. XML: Specifies database auditing, with the XML-format audit records going to the OS files. XML, EXTENDED: Same as the XML setting, but also records all audit-trail columns, including SQLTEXT and SQLBIND. There is a default location in which Oracle will place the audit file, and you can easily change the location of this file by using the AUDIT_FILE_DEST parameter in the init.ora file, as shown here: AUDIT_TRAIL=DB AUDIT_FILE_DEST=/a10/app/oracle/oradata/audit_data
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