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CHAPTER 12 US ER MA NAG EMENT A ND DA TABA SE S ECUR ITY
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Enabling Fine-Grained Auditing
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You use the DBMS_FGA Oracle package to enable fine-grained auditing. With FGA, you can audit only specific rows within a table. You can simulate a trigger for statements by executing a user-written procedure when an audit condition is met. You can catch employee misuse of data. You can also use FGA as an intrusion-detection device. You don t need to turn on database-wide auditing to use FGA, and since the auditing is based on table access, it is virtually impossible to bypass FGA policies. FGA records are accessible through the DBA_FGA_AUDIT_TRAIL and DBA_COMMON_AUDIT_TRAIL views, with the latter view combining both standard and fine-grained audit log records. You use the DBMS_FGA package s ADD_POLICY procedure to add a fine-grained audit policy. Listing 12-17 shows the structure of the ADD_POLICY procedure. Listing 12-17. The ADD_POLICY Procedure SQL> EXECUTE DBMS_FGA.ADD_POLICY( object_schema VARCHAR2, object_name VARCHAR2, policy_name VARCHAR2, audit_condition VARCHAR2, audit_column VARCHAR2, handler_schema VARCHAR2, handler_module VARCHAR2, enable BOOLEAN, statement_types VARCHAR2, audit_trail BINARY_INTEGER IN DEFAULT, audit_column_opts BINARY_INTEGER IN DEFAULT); These are the parameters of the ADD_POLICY procedure: object_schema: The schema of the object you want to audit. The default is NULL meaning the logon user schema. object_name: The name of the object you want to audit. policy_name: A user-given name for the audit policy. audit_condition: A condition in a row that indicates a monitoring condition. The default value is NULL, which acts as TRUE. audit_column: The columns you want to audit for access. The default is NULL, which means that all column access will be audited. The audit_column_opts parameter works in conjunction with this parameter. handler_schema: The schema that contains the event handler. The default is NULL, meaning that the current schema will be used. enable: The parameter that enables or disables the policy. The default value is TRUE, which enables the policy. statement_types: The SQL statement types to which this policy is applicable: INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, or SELECT. The default is SELECT. audit_trail: The parameter that says whether to populate LSQLTEXT and LSQLBIND in the fga_log$ table. A setting of DB does not populate the columns. The default value is DB_EXTENDED, which populates the columns.
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CHAPT ER 12 USE R MA NAGEM ENT AN D DA TA BAS E S ECURITY
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audit_column_opts: Determines whether auditing should be enforced when the query references any column or all columns specified in the audit_column parameter. Set to DBMS_FGA.ALL_COLUMNS, the statement will be audited only if it references all columns specified in the audit_column parameter. The default is DBMS_FGA.ANY_COLUMNS, which means the statement will be audited if it references any column specified in the audit_column parameter.
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Using Fine-Grained Auditing
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It s time to see how you can use the DBMS_FGA package to enforce fine-grained auditing. The following FGA example audits any DML statement (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, and SELECT) on the hr.emp table that accesses the salary column for any employee belonging to the SALES department: SQL> EXECUTE DBMS_FGA.ADD_POLICY( object_schema => 'hr', object_name => 'emp', policy_name => 'chk_hr_emp', audit_condition => 'dept = ''SALES'' ', audit_column => 'salary', statement_types => 'insert,update,delete,select', handler_schema => 'sec', handler_module => 'log_id', enable => TRUE); Once the preceding ADD_POLICY procedure is executed, all subsequent SELECT statements that query the emp table for salary information where the employee belongs to the SALES department will be logged in the SYS.FGA_LOG$ table in the System tablespace; DBA_FGA_AUDIT_TRAIL is a view built on this table. You can also capture the SQL text, policy name, and other information through the LSQLTEXT and LSQLBIND columns of fga_log$, providing you specify audit_trail = DBMS_FGA.DB_EXTENDED. The handler_module and the handler_schema parameters are used to take a predetermined set of actions whenever an audit event occurs, and you can create a trigger-like mechanism called the audit event handler that handles the audit event when it occurs. Here are what the two event handler related parameters stand for: handler_schema: The schema that owns the data procedure handler_module: The procedure or package name In our example, the handler module is denoted by sec_id, which is the following procedure: SQL> CREATE PROCEDURE sec.log_id (schema1 varchar2, table1 varchar2, policy1 varchar2) AS BEGIN UTIL_ALERT_PAGER(schema1, table1, policy1); /*send an alert to my pager*/ END;
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Tip You only need the execute privilege on the DBMS_FGA package in order to use FGA. When you use the DBMS_FGA package, the audit records don t go into the standard audit table, the SYS.AUD$ table, even when you turn on the database audit trail. The audit records go into a special table called sys.fga_aud$.
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