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By default, all passwords are case sensitive in Oracle Database 11g. The initialization parameter SEC_CASE_SENSITIVE_LOGON controls whether passwords are case sensitive or not. The default value of this parameter is true, which means all passwords are case sensitive by default. If, for some reason, say because some of your applications use hard-coded passwords that require that passwords not be case insensitive, you can instruct the database to disregard case when evaluating passwords, by setting the SEC_CASE_SENSITIVE_LOGON parameter to false, as shown here: sec_case_sensitive_logon=false When you upgrade a pre Oracle Database 11g release database to Oracle Database 11g, the passwords remain case insensitive, because that was the behavior in those releases. You must use the ALTER USER statement to change the password of each user, in order to make them case sensitive. When you upgrade to Oracle Database 11g, passwords remain case insensitive until you change the passwords, If you leave the SEC_CASE_SENSITIVE_LOGON parameter at its default value of true, all new passwords will be case sensitive, just as in a newly created Oracle Database 11g release database. You can execute the following query in a newly upgraded database to find out in which release a user s password was set or changed.
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SQL> SELECT username, password, password_versions FROM dba_users; USERNAME -------------------MGMT_VIEW SYS SYSTEM DBSNMP SYSMAN RMAN SH . . . 39 rows selected. SQL> PASSWORD --------PASSWORD -------10G 11G 10G 11G 10G 11G 10G 11G 10G 11G 10G 11G 10G 11G
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The column PASSWORD_VERSIONS reveals the database version in which a password was initially set or modified. The output of the query shows that all passwords were either created or changed in the Oracle Database 11g release database. You can t see the (encrypted) passwords in this query as you could in prior releases, but the encrypted passwords are available through the USER$ view. When a user tries and fails to connect with a wrong password, the database will increase the time between successive attempts after the third failed attempt, for a maximum of 10 seconds.
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In addition to making all passwords case sensitive by default, Oracle also provides other features to provide secure password support. These features include the passing of all passwords entered by users through the strong hash algorithm (SHA-1, which uses a 160-bit key) and comparing it with the stored credentials for that user, as well as making all passwords use salt, which is a unique random value that s added to the passwords to ensure that the output credentials are unique.
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Any user account that is locked can be unlocked for free access with the following statement: SQL> ALTER USER hr ACCOUNT UNLOCK; User altered. SQL> You can make Oracle lock any account after a certain number of failed login attempts with the CREATE or ALTER PROFILE statement. Oracle lets you specify how long you want the account to be locked after making the specified login attempts to enter the database; after that time is reached, Oracle will automatically unlock the account. To close this loophole, simply set the locked time period to UNLIMITED. Here s an example of creating a profile with the time period for locking the account: SQL> CREATE PROFILE test_profile 2 LIMIT FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS 5 3* PASSWORD_LOCK_TIME UNLIMITED Profile created. SQL>
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The database will lock an account once the FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS limit is reached. However, the DBA can unlock a user s account at any time by using the following command: SQL> ALTER USER hr ACCOUNT UNLOCK; User altered. SQL>
Password Expiration
Password aging policies, which ensure that users don t hang onto the same password for a long time, are a standard part of database security. Once a password expires, the user is forced to change it. You can make a password expire with the ALTER USER command, as shown here: SQL> ALTER USER hr IDENTIFIED BY hr PASSWORD EXPIRE; User altered. SQL> You can also make a password expire with the ALTER PROFILE command: SQL> ALTER PROFILE test_profile 2* LIMIT PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME 30; Profile altered. SQL> ALTER USER hr PROFILE test_profile; User altered. SQL> The preceding ALTER PROFILE statement limits the password life to 30 days, and you can gently remind the user about this by using another clause in your ALTER PROFILE statement, PASSWORD_ GRACE_TIME. Once you set the PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME clause as shown here, the first time the user logs in after the end of the password lifetime, the user will receive a warning that the password is about to expire in three days. If the user doesn t change the password within the grace period of three days, the password will expire. After the user s password expires, the password must be changed: SQL> CONNECT hr/hr ERROR: ORA-28001: the password has expired Changing password for hr New password: ** Retype new password: ** Password changed Connected. SQL>
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