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CHAPTER 12 US ER MA NAG EMENT A ND DA TABA SE S ECUR ITY
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Remove the PL/SQL EXTPROC functionality unless it is needed. First remove mentions to EXTPROC in both the listener.ora file on the server and the tnsnames.ora file on the client. You then can remove all EXTPROC executables from your $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory. There is usually a pair of executables called extproc and extproc0. The EXTPROC facility gives hackers a way to break into the operating system without any authentication. If you do need to use the EXTPROC functionality, refer to Note 175429.1 on Oracle s MetaLink site (http://metalink.oracle.com). Make sure you don t allow ordinary users access to your export and import control files, because your passwords may appear in those files.
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Note Peter Finnegan s Oracle security web site (http://www.petefinnigan.com) provides several interesting and useful Oracle security-related articles and scripts, including discussion about the detection of SQL injection and numerous other Oracle security issues. The comprehensive Oracle Database Checklist that s available on Finnegan s web site is used to audit Oracle database installations and pretty much covers all Oracle database security issues.
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The Network and the Listener
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The network and the listener service are vulnerable points of Oracle security there are many ways you can inadvertently leave avenues open for attacks on your database. Let s first look at how you can strengthen the listener service.
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Securing the Listener
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As you learned in 11, you should always use a password for the listener to prevent unauthorized users from preventing connections to the database. Once you set a password for the listener, privileged actions such as shutting down or starting up the listener can t be performed unless you provide the right password. You can also prevent a user from using the SET command to interfere with listener functions. To do this, you need to add the following line to your listener.ora configuration file: ADMIN_RESTRICTIONS=ON By default, this parameter is set to false. You should also avoid remote management of the listener service, as its password isn t encrypted over the network. The listener password is stored in the listener.ora file, so you must safeguard this file.
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One of the basic security requirements for today s Internet-based database applications is that you must have a firewall protecting your system from the external world. Once you have a firewall in place, keep it secure by not poking holes in it for any reason, such as by using the ports used by the listener to connect to the Internet. In addition to having a normal firewall, you can use a feature of Oracle Net to add an additional layer of protection called server-side access controls. Server-side access controls limit the capability of an address to connect to your database using the listener service. There are two ways to limit the addresses through which connections can be made. You can list either the invited (accepted) address or the excluded addresses in the sqlnet.ora file. All network addresses in the invited list are allowed to connect, and all addresses in the excluded nodes list are denied access. When the listener service starts, it reads the sqlnet.ora file and provides access according to the access controls you specified. Here are the additions that you need to make to your sqlnet.ora file to enforce server-side access controls if you are specifying the invited addresses:
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CHAPT ER 12 USE R MA NAGEM ENT AN D DA TA BAS E S ECURITY
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tcp.validnode_checking = yes tcp.invited_nodes = (server1.us.wowcompany.com, 172.14.16.152) Here is what you need to add if you are excluding addresses: tcp.excluded_nodes = (server1.us.wowcompany.com, 172.14.16.152)
Note
In general, because it s more likely that you know the addresses that are going to connect to your database, using the TCP_INVITED_NODES parameter may be the best way to limit access to your system.
Denying Remote Client Authentication
As you learned earlier in this chapter, letting remote clients authenticate logins is unsafe, and you should always let the server authenticate clients connecting to your database. You can turn clientbased operating system authentication off by setting the following parameter in your init.ora file: REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT=FALSE The preceding setting will force server authentication of users, which is more secure than trusting the clients to perform operating system authentication.
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