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Exploring the SQL*Loader Control File
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The SQL*Loader control file is a simple text file in which you specify important details about the data load job, such as the location of the source datafile. The control file is also the place where you map the datafiles to the table columns. You can also specify any transformation during the load process within the control file. The control file contains the names of the log files for the load and files for catching bad and rejected data. The control file instructs SQL*Loader regarding the following aspects of the SQL*Loader session: The source of the data to be loaded into the database The column specification of the target table The nature of the input file formatting The mapping of the input file fields to the table columns Data transformation rules (applying SQL functions) The locations for the log files and error files Listing 13-1 shows a typical SQL*Loader control file. SQL*Loader considers data rows in the source datafiles to be records, and you can specify the record formats in the control file. Note that you can also use a separate file for the data. In this example, you see the control information followed by in-line data, as shown by the use of the INFILE * specification in the control file. This specification indicates that the data for the load will follow the control information for the load. If you are doing a onetime data load, it is probably better to keep things simple and place the data in the control file itself. The keyword BEGINDATA tells SQL*Loader where the data portion of the control file starts. Listing 13-1. A Typical SQL*Loader Control File LOAD DATA INFILE * BADFILE test.bad DISCARDFILE test.dsc
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C HA PTER 13 LOA DI NG A ND T RANS FORMING DA TA
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INSERT INTO TABLE tablename FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY"" (column1 POSITION (1:2) CHAR, column2 POSITION (3:9) INTEGER EXTERNAL, column3 POSITION (10:15) INTEGER EXTERNAL, column4 POSITION (16:16) CHAR ) BEGINDATA AY3456789111111Y /* Rest of the data here . . .*/ The portion of the control file that describes the data fields is called the field list. In the control file in Listing 13-1, the field list is the following section: (column1 column2 column3 column4 ) POSITION POSITION POSITION POSITION (1:2) char, (3:9) integer external, (10:15) integer external, (16:16) char
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The field list shows the field names, position, data type, delimiters, and any applicable conditions. You can specify numerous variables in the control file, and you can informally sort them into the following groups: Loading-related clauses Datafile-related clauses Table- and field-mapping clauses Command-line parameters in the control file The following sections describe the parameters you can specify in the control file to configure your data loads.
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If you aren t sure which parameters you can use for your SQL*Loader run, just type sqlldr at the operating system prompt to view all the available options. You will see a complete list of all the parameters and their operating system-specific default values (if any exist).
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Loading-Related Clauses
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The keywords LOAD DATA start off a control file. This simply means that the data is to be loaded from the input datafile to the Oracle tables using the SQL*Loader utility. The INTO TABLE clause indicates into which table the data will be loaded. If you re loading into multiple tables simultaneously, you ll need an INTO TABLE statement for each table. The keywords INSERT, REPLACE, and APPEND instruct the database how the load will be done. If it is an INSERT, the table is assumed to be empty; otherwise, the loading process will generate an error and stop. The REPLACE clause will truncate the table and start loading new data. You ll often see that a load job using the REPLACE option seems to hang initially. This is because Oracle is busy truncating the table before it starts the load process. The APPEND clause will add the new rows to existing table data.
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