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Permissions: Reading from or Writing to Files in UNIX
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A user s ability to read from or write to files on a UNIX system depends on the permissions that have been granted for that file by the owner of the file or directory the user who creates a file is the owner of that file. Every file and directory comes with three types of permissions: Read: Lets you view the contents of the file only. Write: Lets you change the contents of the file. Write permission on a directory will let you create, modify, or delete files in that directory. Execute: Lets you execute (run) the file if the file contains an executable program (script). Read permission is the most basic permission. Having the execute permission without the read permission is of no use you can t execute a file if you can t read it in the first place.
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Determining File Permissions
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Use the ls -al command to list the file permissions along with the filenames in a directory. For example, look at the (partial) output of the following command:
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CHAPTER 3 ES SEN TIAL UN IX (AN D LINUX) FOR THE ORA CLE DBA
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$ ls -al -rwxrwxrwx -rw-r---r-rw-r---r$
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Jan 23 Jul 18 Nov 22
09:00 13:38 01:30
test.ksh updown.ksh tokill.ksh
You ll notice that at the beginning of each line, each file has a combination of ten different letters and the blank sign (-). The first letter could be a blank or the letter d. If it is the letter d, it s a directory. If it s a blank, it s a regular file. The next nine spaces are grouped into three sets of the letters rwx. The rwx group refers to the read, write, and execute permissions on that file. The first set of rwx indicates the permissions assigned to the owner of the file. The second set lists the permissions assigned to the group the user belongs to. The last set lists the permissions on that file granted to all the other users of the system. For example, consider the access permissions on the following file: $ -rwxr-x--x 1 oracle dba Nov 11 2001 test.ksh Because the first character is a hyphen (-), this is a file, not a directory. The next three characters, rwx, indicate that the owner of the file test.ksh has all three permissions (read, write, and execute) on the file. The next three characters, r-x, show that all the users who are in the same group as the owner have read and execute permissions, but not write permissions. In other words, they cannot change the contents of the file. The last set of characters, --x, indicates that all other users on the system can execute the file, but they cannot modify it.
Setting and Modifying File Permissions
Any file that you create will first have the permissions set to -rw-r--r--. That is, everybody has read permissions, and no user has permission to execute the file. If you put an executable program inside the file, you ll want to grant someone permission to execute the file. You can set the permissions on the file by using the chmod command in one of two ways. First, you can use the symbolic notation, with the letter o standing for owner, g for group, and u for other users on the system. You grant a group or users specific permissions by first specifying the entity along with a plus sign (+) followed by the appropriate symbol for the permission. In the following example, the notation go+x means that both the group and others are assigned the execute (x) permission on the test.ksh shell script: $ chmod go+x test.ksh
The next example shows how you can use symbolic notation to remove read and write permissions on a file from the group: $ chmod g-rw test.ksh
Second, you can use the octal numbers method to change file permissions. Each permission carries different numeric weights : read carries a weight of 4, write a weight of 2, and execute a weight of 1. To determine a permission setting, just add the weights for the permissions you want to assign. The highest number that can be associated with each of the three different entities owner, group, and all others is 7, which is the same as having read, write, and execute permissions on the file. For example, consider the following:
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