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CHAPTER 3 ES SEN TIAL UN IX (AN D LINUX) FOR THE ORA CLE DBA
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You can use the following relations with the test command while comparing integers: -ne: Not equal -eq: Equal -lt: Less than -gt: Greater than -ge: Greater than or equal to -le: Less than or equal to
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Executing Shell Programs with Command-Line Arguments
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It s common to use arguments to specify parameters to shell programs. For example, you can run the shell program example.ksh as follows: $ example.ksh prod1 system In this case, example.ksh is your shell script, and the command-line arguments are prod1, the database name, and system, the username in the database. There are two arguments inside the shell script referred to as $1 and $2, and these arguments correspond to prod1 and system. UNIX uses a positional system, meaning that the first argument after the shell script s name is the variable $1, the second argument is the value of the variable $2, and so on. Thus, whenever there s a reference to $1 inside the shell script, you know the variable is referring to the first argument (prod1, the database name, in this example). By using command-line arguments, the script can be reused for several database and username combinations you don t have to change the script.
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Analyzing a Shell Script
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Let s look at a simple database-monitoring shell script, example.ksh. This script looks for a certain file and lets you know if it fails to find it. The script uses one command-line argument to specify the name of the database. You therefore will expect to find a $1 variable in the script. When the shell program is created, UNIX has no way of knowing it s an executable program. You make your little program an executable shell script by using the chmod command: $ ll example.ksh -rw-rw-rw- 1 salapati $ chmod 766 example.ksh $ ll example.ksh 4-rwxrw-rw- 1 salapati $ dba 439 feb 02 16:51 example.ksh
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example.ksh
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You can see that when the script was first created, it wasn t executable, because it didn t have the execution permissions set for anyone. By using the chmod command, the execution permission is granted to the owner of the program, salapati, and now the program is an executable shell script. Here are the contents of the example.ksh shell script, which looks for a certain file in a directory and sends out an e-mail to the DBA if the file is not found there: #!/bin/ksh ORACLE_SID=$1 export ORACLE_SID PATH=/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/contrib./bin:$PATH export PATH ORACLE_BASE=${ORACLE_HOME}/../..;
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CH APT ER 3 ES SEN TI AL UN IX (A ND LINU X) F O R TH E O RA CLE D BA
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export ORACLE_BASE export CURRDATE='date +%m%dY_%H%M' export LOGFILE=/tmp/dba/dba.log test -s $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/test${ORACLE_SID}.dbf if [ 'echo $ ' -ne 0 ] then echo "File not found!" mailx -s "Critical: Test file not found!" dba@bankone.com fi
$LOGFILE
Let s analyze the example.ksh shell script briefly. The first line in the program announces that this is a program that will use the Korn shell that s what #!/bin/ksh at the top of the script indicates. This is a standard line in all Korn shell programs (and programs for other shells have equivalent lines). In the next line, you see ORACLE_SID being assigned the value of the $1 variable. Thus, $1 will be assigned the value of the first parameter you pass with the shell program at the time of execution, and that value will be given to ORACLE_SID. The script also exports the value for the ORACLE_BASE environment variable. Next, the program exports the values of three environmental variables: PATH, CURRDATE, and LOGFILE. Then the script uses the file-testing command, test, to check for the existence of the file testprod1.dbf (where prod1 is the value of ORACLE_SID) in a specific location. In UNIX, the success of a command is indicated by a value of 0 and failure is indicated by 1; you ll also recall that echo $ variable_name will print the value of the variable on the screen. Therefore, the next line, if [ 'echo $ ' -ne 0], literally means if the result of the test command is negative (which is the same as saying, if the file doesn t exist ). If that s the case, the then statement will write File not found in the log file. The then statement also uses the mail program to e-mail a message to the DBA saying that the required file is missing. The mail program lets you send mail to user accounts on another UNIX server or to a person s e-mail address. All you have to do to run or execute this shell script is simply type the name of the script at the command prompt, followed by the name of the database. For this simple method to work, however, you must be in the Korn shell when you run the script. Now that you ve learned the basics of creating shell scripts, let s move on to some powerful but still easy techniques that will help you write more powerful shell programs.
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