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Several dynamic performance views help you monitor the online backups and troubleshoot the process. Online backups could take a considerable amount of time, depending on the size of the database. It s not unheard of for the backup process to fail or hang up before it completes. As a DBA, you should be aware of the steps you need to take under those circumstances. Table 15-1 lists the critical V$ views that help monitor and diagnose problems in backups.
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Table 15-1. V$ Views for Monitoring Backups
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This view is of great help in determining whether any of the datafiles are still in backup mode. Hot backups sometimes get hung up, and you can query the status column of this table to find out whether any file shows ACTIVE as the status. If a file does show this status, and the backup is supposed to have been finished based on the schedule, something obviously went wrong, and you need it to get the file(s) out of hot backup mode. This view lists all the datafiles that belong to all the tablespaces that need to be backed up. This view displays all the online redo logs for the database. This view displays historical archived log information from the control file. This view displays the redo logs that have been archived.
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V$DATAFILE V$LOG V$ARCHIVED_LOG V$LOG_HISTORY
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Regular backups of a production database are imperative, but the backups won t help if they are unusable for some reason. Testing of backups is an often-ignored area of backup and recovery. Unfortunately, many administrators realize its necessity under painful circumstances. Backed-up database files may become useless during recovery for several reasons: corrupt datafiles and redo logs, accidentally overwritten files, defective tapes, or even nonexistent files. You must get into the habit of regularly testing your production backups according to a schedule. This will help you catch any data corruption. I use the term corruption to indicate the fact that the data is inconsistent with what it should be. You are concerned here basically with what is known as block corruption, which could be logical or physical.
Detecting Media Corruption
Media corruption can be caused by myriad factors, ranging from user error to bugs in the operating system software, to bad disks, to a Logical Volume Manager (LVM) error, to faulty memory chips. Media defects could lead to corruption in the control files, redo logs, data dictionary, table data, and index data. Your detection of media corruption anywhere in the database involves using scripts to monitor your alert logs on a regular basis and using some Oracle features that enable early detection of problems. You can almost completely prevent redo log and control file corruption by using multiplexing, at both the operating system level and the Oracle level. Owing to the database s sheer size and the fact that its files are not multiplexed as a matter of course, data block corruption is of most concern to DBAs. Try to catch the corruption messages in your alert logs early on and seek Oracle Worldwide Support s help in fixing any type of corruption issues in your database
Detecting Data Block Corruption
Data block corruption occurs when you have inconsistent data in tables or indexes. You usually end up losing a significant amount of data if you can t fix the corrupted blocks of data. Although you may take several steps to prevent corruption, early detection of corrupted datafiles will help you in two ways:
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It will enable you to find quick ways of salvaging all or as much of the affected data as possible. It will save you surprises during a recovery from media errors. Early detection of corruption always will minimize the problem, because it will enable you to take the files offline and reduce the potential damage. You can use several methods to detect data block corruption. First, you can set a few initialization parameters to trap corrupted block information. Also, you can use utilities such as DBVERIFY and DBMS_REPAIR and the ANALYZE command to enable you to detect data block corruption. These methods are not mutually exclusive; rather, you should use them as complements to each other, as each has its own appealing features. The following sections cover the use of each of these techniques.
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