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Several UNIX operating systems have their own system-monitoring tools. For example, on the HP-UX operating system, GlancePlus is a package that is commonly used by system administrators and DBAs to monitor memory, disk I/O, and CPU performance.
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CH APT ER 3 ES SEN TI AL UN IX (A ND LINU X) F O R TH E O RA CLE D BA
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Figure 3-3 shows a typical GlancePlus session in text mode, invoked with the following command: $ glance -m The CPU, memory, disk, and swap usage is summarized in the top section. The middle of the display gives you a detailed memory report, and at the bottom of the screen you can see a short summary of memory usage again.
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Figure 3-3. A typical GlancePlus session in text mode Note that this session shows memory usage in detail because GlancePlus was invoked with the -m option (glance -c would give you a report on CPU usage, and glance -d would give you a disk usage report). GlancePlus also has an attractive and highly useful GUI interface, which you can invoke by using the command gpm.
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Monitoring the Network with netstat
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Besides monitoring the CPU and memory on the system, you need to monitor the network to make sure there are no serious traffic bottlenecks. The netstat utility comes in handy for this purpose, and it works the same way on UNIX as it does on the Windows servers.
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Disks and Storage in UNIX
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The topic of physical storage and using the disk system in UNIX is extremely important for the DBA the choice of disk configuration has a profound impact on the availability and the performance of the database. Some Oracle databases benefit by using raw disk storage instead of disks controlled by the UNIX operating system. The Oracle Real Application Clusters (RACs) can only use the raw devices; they can t use the regular UNIX-formatted disks. All the UNIX files on a system make up its file system, and this file system is created on a disk partition, which is a slice of a disk, the basic storage device.
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CHAPTER 3 ES SEN TIAL UN IX (AN D LINUX) FOR THE ORA CLE DBA
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Disk Storage Configuration Choices
The choices you make about how you configure your disk storage will have a major impact on the performance and the uptime of your database. It s not a good idea to make storage device decisions in a vacuum; rather, you should consider your database applications and the type of database that is going to be located on the storage systems when making these decisions. For example, if you have a data warehouse, you may want your system administrator to use larger striping sizes for the disks. If you are going to have large numbers of writes to or reads from the database, you need to choose the appropriate disk configuration. Compared to the technologies of only a few years ago, today s ultra-sophisticated storage technologies make it possible to have both a high level of performance and high availability of data simultaneously. Still, you have plenty of choices to make that will have an impact on performance and availability. The nature of the I/Os, database caches, read/write ratios, and other issues are fundamentally different in OLTP and DSS systems. Also, response-time expectations are significantly different between OLTP and DSS systems. Thus, a storage design that is excellent for one type of database may be a terrible choice for another type, so you need to learn more about the operational needs of your application at the physical design stage to make smart choices in this extremely critical area.
Monitoring Disk Usage
When setting up an Oracle system, you will typically make a formal request to the system administrator for physical disk space based on your sizing estimates and growth expectations for the database. Once the general space request is approved by the system administrator, he or she will give you the location of the mount points where your space is located. Mount points are directories on the system to which the file systems are mounted. You can then create all the necessary directories prior to the installation of the Oracle software and the creation of the database itself. Once space is assigned for your software and databases, it s your responsibility to keep track of its usage. If you seem to be running out of space, you will need to request more space from the system administrator. Ideally, you should always have some extra free disk space on the mount points assigned to you so you can allocate space to your database files if the need arises. There are a couple of very useful commands for checking your disk space and seeing what has been used and what is still free for future use. The df (disk free) command indicates the total allocation in bytes for any mount point and how much of it is currently being used. The df -k option gives you the same information in kilobytes, which is generally more useful. The following example shows the use of the df command with the -k option: $df -k /finance09 /finance09 ( /dev/vgxp1_0f038/lvol1) : 7093226 total allocated Kb 1740427 free allocated Kb 5352799 used allocated Kb 75% allocation used $ The preceding output shows that out of a total of 7.09GB allocated to the /finance09 mount point, about 5.35GB is currently allocated to various files and about 1.74GB of space is still free. Another command that displays how the disks are being used is the du command, which indicates, in bytes, the amount of space being used by the mount point.
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