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CHAPTER 18 MA NA GING AND M ONITORING THE OPERATIONA L DATABA SE
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Using the AWR snapshots, Oracle saves the metric information that is being continuously placed in the SGA by the MMON process. After saving performance metrics in memory for an hour, the MMON process flushes metric data from the SGA to disk, where it is stored permanently in the DBA_HIST_* views, such as DBA_HIST_SUMMARY_HISTORY, DBA_HIST_SYSMETRIC_HISTORY, and DBA_HIST_ METRICNAME. Each of these views actually represents snapshots of the corresponding V$ view, with, for example, the DBA_HIST_SYSMETRIC_HISTORY view containing snapshots of the V$SYSMETRIC_HISTORY view. Oracle metrics serve as the foundation of the server-generated alerts feature, which is the next topic.
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Oracle DBAs generally use SQL scripts to alert them when abnormal conditions occur. Oracle Database 11g provides a built-in system of alerts, formally called server-generated alerts, which automatically alert you when problem conditions occur. The database generates alerts based on the occurrence of specific events, or when certain database metrics exceed their threshold values. Oracle calls the threshold-based alerts stateful alerts, and they can be set off at either a warning threshold or a critical threshold. Threshold-based alerts thus are based on metrics, not events. Unlike in the old OEM alert-notification system, the database itself collects all alert-related metrics instead of the OEM. The warning and critical threshold values can be set by the DBA, or you can accept Oracle s internal settings for the thresholds. The nonthreshold Oracle alerts are problem-related alerts, and they are based on the occurrence of certain predetermined events (usually bad ones) occurring in the database. Oracle calls these stateless alerts here are some examples: Recovery area space usage exceeded Resumable session suspended Snapshot too old Thus, there are altogether three situations when a database can send an alert: A metric crosses a critical threshold value A metric crosses a warning threshold value A nonthreshold (problem) type of alert occurs When you use threshold-based alerts, Oracle distinguishes between a warning alert (severity level 5) and a critical alert (severity level 1). For example, by default, the database will send you a warning alert when any tablespace hits an 85 percent space use threshold. When the usage reaches the 97 percent level, you get a critical alert.
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Default Server-Generated Alerts
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Oracle provides several server-generated default alerts, which could be either threshold-based or problem alerts. These are some of the out-of-the-box server-generated alerts in an Oracle Database 11g database: Snapshot too old Tablespace space usage (warning alert at 85 percent usage; critical alert at 97 percent usage) Resumable session suspended Recovery area running out of free space
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CH A PT ER 1 8 M ANA GIN G AN D MON IT O RING TH E O PERA TI ON AL D AT AB ASE
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Oracle automatically sets thresholds on all metrics with the object type SYSTEM.
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In addition to the default alerts, you can choose to use other alerts, and you can also change the thresholds for the default alerts. You can perform these tasks with the help of the OEM Database Control or with Oracle-supplied PL/SQL packages. You can also use the Database Control to set up notification rules; for example, you could specify a blackout period for the alerts, during which no alerts would be sent out by the database. When the database issues an alert, you can see it in the Database Control Alerts table (see Figure 18-2), which is located at the bottom of the Database Control home page, and you ll receive a notification if you ve configured the system to send you one. The alert data is, by default, updated every 60 seconds. To get the details of an alert, click the alert message in the Message column of the Alerts table. The alerts usually are accompanied by a recommendation to fix the problem as well.
Figure 18-2. The Database Control Alerts table Make sure you set the STATISTICS_LEVEL parameter to TYPICAL or ALL in order to use the servergenerated alerts feature. In addition, you can display alerts directly by subscribing to the alert queue.
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