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CHAPTER 19 IMPROV IN G DA TA BAS E PERFORMAN CE: SQL QUERY OPTIMIZA TION
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Often, users request the DBA to help them trace their SQL statements. You can use the DBMS_ SYSTEM.SET_SQL_TRACE_IN_SESSION procedure to set tracing on in another user s session. Note that usage of the DBMS_SYSTEM package has never actually been supported by Oracle. The recommended way is to use the DBMS_MONITOR package to trace a session. Regardless of the method you use, once you start tracing a session, all statements are traced until you use the ALTER SESSION statement or the DBMS_SESSION package to turn tracing off (replace true with false in either of the preceding statements). Alternatively, when the user logs off, tracing is automatically stopped for that user.
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Interpreting the Trace Files with TKPROF
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Once you set tracing on for a session, any SQL statement that is issued during that session is traced and the output stored in the directory (udump) specified by the USER_DUMP_DEST parameter in your init.ora file or SPFILE. The filename has the format db_name_ora_nnnnn.trc, where nnnnn is usually a four- or five-digit number. For example, the sample trace file in our example is named pasx_ora_ 16340.trc. If you go to the user dump destination directory immediately after a trace session is completed, the most recent file is usually the session trace file you just created. You can also differentiate the trace file output by a SQL Trace execution from the other files in the dump directory, by its size these trace files are much larger in general than the other files output to the directory. These trace files are detailed and complex. Fortunately, the easy-to-run TKPROF utility formats the output into a readable format. The TKPROF utility uses the trace file as the input, along with several parameters you can specify. Table 19-1 shows the main TKPROF parameters you can choose to produce the format that suits you. If you type tkprof at the command prompt, you ll see a complete listing of all the parameters that you can specify when you invoke TKPROF. Table 19-1. TKPROF Command-Line Arguments
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Parameter
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FILENAME EXPLAIN RECORD WAITS SORT TABLE SYS PRINT INSERT
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The input trace file produced by SQL Trace The EXPLAIN PLAN for the SQL statements Creates a SQL script with all the nonrecursive SQL statements Records a summary of wait events Presents sort data based on one or more items, such as PRSCPU (CPU time parsing), PRSELA (elapsed time parsing), and so on Defines the name of the tables into which the TKPROF utility temporarily puts the execution plans Enables and disables listing of SQL statements issued by SYS Lists only a specified number of SQL statements instead of all statements Creates a script that stores the trace information in the database
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Let s trace a session by a user who is executing two SELECT statements, one using tables with indexes and the other using tables without any indexes. In this example, you re using only a few parameters, choosing to run TKPROF with default sort options. The first parameter is the name of the output file and the second is the name for the TKPROF-formatted output. You re specifying that you don t want any analysis of statements issued by the user SYS. You re also specifying that the EXPLAIN PLAN for the statement be shown in addition to the other statistics.
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CHAPTER 19 IM PR OVING DA TA BAS E PERFORM ANC E: S QL QUE RY OPTIMIZA TION
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Tip
By just typing tkprof at the operating system prompt, you can get a quick help guide to the usage of the TKPROF utility.
$ tkprof finance_ora_16340.trc test.txt sys=no explain=y
TKPROF: Release 11.1.0.6.0 - Production on Mon Apr 28 12:49:38 2008 Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle. $ All rights reserved.
The test.txt file contains the output of the SQL trace, now nicely formatted for you by the TKPROF utility.
Examining the Formatted Output File
Listing 19-11 shows the top portion of the test.txt file, which explains the key terms used by the utility. Listing 19-11. The Top Part of the TKPROF-Formatted Trace File TKPROF: Release 11.1.0.6.0 - Production on Mon Apr 28 12:49:38 2008 Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved. Trace file: finance_ora_16340.trc Sort options: default ******************************************************************************** count = number of times OCI procedure was executed cpu = cpu time in seconds executing elapsed = elapsed time in seconds executing disk = number of physical reads of buffers from disk query = number of buffers gotten for consistent read current = number of buffers gotten in current mode (usually for update) rows = number of rows processed by the fetch or execute call ******************************************************************************** Each TKPROF report shows the following information for each SQL statement issued during the time the user s session was traced: The SQL statement Counts of parse, execute, and fetch (for SELECT statements) calls Count of rows processed CPU seconds used I/O used Library cache misses Optional execution plan Row-source operation listing A report summary analyzing how many similar and distinct statements were found in the trace file
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