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The best approach, as well as the recommended one, to end-to-end tracing is to use the OEM Database Control. This way, you don t have to bother with manual runs of the DBMS_MONITOR package. Here are the steps: 1. From the Database Control home page, click the Performance link. 2. In the Performance page, click the Top Consumers link under the Additional Management Links section. 3. In the Top Consumers page, you ll see the tabs for Top Services, Top Modules, Top Actions, Top Clients, and Top Sessions, as shown in Figure 19-2. Click the Top Clients tab. 4. To enable aggregation for a client, select the client and click Enable Aggregation. If you wish, you can use the Database Control to trace a normal SQL session instead of using the SET_TRACE command and the TKPROF utility. To trace a user command, in step 3 of the preceding sequence, click the Top Sessions tab. You then click the Enable SQL Trace button. You can then use the Disable SQL Trace button to stop the session tracing and view the output by clicking the View SQL Trace File button.
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You can view all outstanding trace information in your instance by examining the DBA_ENABLED_TRACES view, or use a trace report generated through the Database Control.
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CHAPTER 19 IMPROV IN G DA TA BAS E PERFORMAN CE: SQL QUERY OPTIMIZA TION
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Figure 19-2. Using the Database Control for tracing
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Using the V$SQL View to Find Inefficient SQL
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The V$SQL view is an invaluable tool in tracking down wasteful SQL code in your application. The V$SQL view gathers information from the shared pool area on every statement s disk reads and memory reads, in addition to other important information. The view holds all the SQL statements executed since instance startup, but there s no guarantee that it will hold every statement until you shut down the instance. For space reasons, the older statements are aged out of the V$SQL view. It s a good idea for you to grant your developers select rights on this view directly if you haven t already granted them the select any catalog role. You can use the V$SQL view to perform ad hoc queries on disk and CPU usage, but remember that the AWR report includes summaries of these kinds of information. The V$SQL view includes, among other things, the following columns, which help in assessing how many resources a SQL statement consumes: rows_processed gives you the total number of rows processed by the statement. sql_text is the text of the SQL statement (first 1,000 characters). sql_fulltext is a CLOB column that shows the full text of a SQL statement. buffer_gets gives you the total number of logical reads (indicates high CPU use). disk_reads tells you the total number of disk reads (indicates high I/O). sorts gives the number of sorts for the statement (indicates high sort ratios). cpu_time is the total parse and execution time. elapsed_time is the elapsed time for parsing and execution.
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CHAPTER 19 IM PR OVING DA TA BAS E PERFORM ANC E: S QL QUE RY OPTIMIZA TION
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parse_calls is the combined soft and hard parse calls for the statement. executions is the number of times a statement was executed. loads is the number of times the statement was reloaded into the shared pool after being flushed out. sharable_memory is the total shared memory used by the cursor. persistent_memory is the total persistent memory used by the cursor. runtime_memory is the total runtime memory used by the cursor.
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Note In previous versions, DBAs used the V$SQLAREA view to gather information shown earlier. However, the V$SQL view supplants the V$SQLAREA view by providing all information in that view, plus other important tuningrelated information as well.
Finding SQL That Uses Most of Your Resources
You can query the V$SQL view to find high-resource-using SQL. You can determine resource-intensive SQL on the basis of the number of logical reads or buffer gets, or high disk reads, high parse calls, large number of executions, or combinations of these factors. It s obvious that a high number of disk reads is inefficient because a high amount of physical I/O slows query performance. However, a high number of memory reads (buffer gets) is also expensive because they consume CPU resources. You normally have high buffer gets because you re using the wrong index, the wrong driving table in a join, or a similar SQL-related error. One of the primary goals of SQL tuning should be to lower the number of unnecessary logical reads. If buffer gets and disk reads are at identical levels, it could indicate a missing index. The reasoning is this: if you don t have an index, Oracle is forced to do a full table scan. However, full table scans can t be kept in the SGA for too long because they might force a lot of other data to be cleared out. Consequently, the full table won t get to stay in the SGA for too long unless it s a small table. The following simple query shows how the V$SQL view can pinpoint problem SQL statements; both high disk reads and high logical reads are used as the criteria for flagging down poor SQL statements captured by the V$SQL view. The SQL_TEXT column shows the exact SQL statement that s responsible for the high disk reads and logical reads: SQL> 2 3 4 5 SELECT sql_text, executions, buffer_gets, disk_reads, FROM V$SQL WHERE buffer_gets > 100000 OR disk_reads > 100000 ORDER BY buffer_gets + 100*disk_reads DESC; BUFFER_GETS DISK_READS ---------- -------------1615283234 125828 1211625422 3680242 152737737 7186125 96590083 5547319 33272842 6034715
SQL_TEXT EXECUTIONS ----------- --------------------BEGIN dbms_job.run(1009133); 726216 BEGIN label_sc_pkg.launch_sc; 34665 SELECT COUNT(*) AV_YOUTHS... 70564 SELECT UC.CHART_ID... 37849 SELECT MAX(REC_NUM) FROM... 5163242 SQL>
The following query is a slight variation on the preceding query. It seeks to find out the number of rows processed for each statement:
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