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Low (K) High (K) Optimal 1-Pass >1 Pass ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------2 4 7820241 0 0 32 64 0 2 0 64 128 9011 1 0 128 256 4064 14 0 256 512 3782 13 0 512 1024 18479 58 4 1024 2048 3818 53 0 2048 4096 79 241 67 4096 8192 1 457 26 8192 16384 0 11 44 16384 32768 3 1 2 32768 65536 0 2 0 65536 131072 0 0 1 131072 262144 0 0 1 14 rows selected. SQL> SQL> An overwhelming number of the sorts in this instance were done optimally, with only a few sorts using the one-pass approach. This why you have the 85 percent PGA hit ratio in the previous example. Here s an instance that s in trouble, as shown by the significant number of sorts in the one-pass and the multipass (> 1 Pass) group. Right now, most of your customers will be complaining that the database is slow. Note that the query is the same as in the previous example. Here s the output: Low (K) High (K) Optimal 1-Pass >1 Pass ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------2 4 2 3 0 4 8 2 7 5 8 16 129866 3 19 16 32 1288 21 3 64 128 2 180 61 128 256 6 2 44 256 512 44 0 16 512 1024 1063 0 35 1024 2048 31069 11 12 2048 4096 0 0 18 8192 16384 986 22 0 16384 32768 0 0 2 As you can see, there are significant multiple pass sorts in this example, and you can bet that the cache hit ratio is going to be low, somewhere in the 70 percent range. Fortunately, all you have to do to speed up the instance is to increase the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter in the following manner: SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET pga_aggregate_target=500000000; System altered. SQL> The new V$PROCESS_MEMORY view lets you view dynamic PGA memory usage for each Oracle process, and shows the PGA usage by each process for categories such as Java, PL/SQL, OLAP, and SQL. Here s a simple query on that view:
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CHAPTER 20 PERFOR MAN CE TUNING: TUNING THE INSTA NCE
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SQL> SELECT pid, category, allocated, used from v$process_memory; PID ---22 22 27 . . . SQL> CATEGORY --------PL/SQL Other SQL ALLOCATED ---------2068 360367 23908 USED ----136 15120
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You can also use the V$PROCESS view to monitor PGA usage by individual processes. If you re running out of memory on your server, it s a good idea to see whether you can release some PGA memory for other uses. Here s a query that shows you the allocated, used, and freeable PGA memory for each process currently connected to the instance: SQL> SELECT program, pga_used_mem, pga_alloc_mem, pga_freeable_mem,pga_max_mem V$PROCESS; You can use the following SQL statement to estimate quickly the proportion of work areas since you started the Oracle instance, using optimal, one-pass, and multipass PGA memory sizes: SQL> SELECT name PROFILE, cnt COUNT, DECODE(total, 0, 0, ROUND(cnt*100/total)) PERCENTAGE FROM (SELECT name, value cnt, (sum(value) over ()) total FROM V$SYSSTAT WHERE name like 'workarea exec%'); PROFILE ------------------------------workarea executions - optimal workarea executions - onepass workarea executions - multipass SQL> In the preceding example, the PGA cache hit percentage for optimal executions is 100 percent, which, of course, is excellent. Oracle DBAs have traditionally paid a whole lot more attention to tuning the SGA memory component because the PGA memory tuning in its present format is relatively new. DBAs in charge of applications requiring heavy-duty hashing and sorting requirements are well advised to pay close attention to the performance of the PGA. It s easy to tune the PGA, and the results of a well-tuned PGA show up in dramatic improvements in performance. COUNT --------7859595 853 145 PERCENTAGE ---------100 0 0
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