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Evaluating System Performance
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The instance-tuning efforts that you undertake from within Oracle will have only a limited impact (they may even have a negative impact) if you don t pay attention to the system performance as a whole. System performance includes the CPU performance, memory usage, and disk I/O. In the following sections you ll look at each of these important resources in more detail.
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CH A PT ER 2 0 PERF O RMAN CE TUNI NG: TUN ING TH E I NS TA NCE
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CPU Performance
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You can use operating system utilities such as System Activity Reporter (sar) or vmstat to find out how the CPU is performing. Don t panic if your processors seem busy during peak periods that s what they re there for, so you can use them when necessary. If the processors are showing a heavy load during low usage times, you do need to investigate further. Listing 20-8 shows a sar command output indicating how hard your system is using the CPU resources right now. Listing 20-8. sar Command Output Showing CPU Usage $ sar -u 10 5 HP-UX finance1 B.11.00 A 9000/800 07/03/05 13:39:17 %usr %sys %wio %idle 13:39:27 34 23 7 36 13:39:37 37 17 8 38 13:39:47 34 18 6 41 13:39:57 31 16 9 44 13:40:07 38 19 11 32 Average 35 19 8 38 In the preceding listing, the four columns report on the following CPU usage patterns: %usr shows the proportion of total CPU time taken up by the various users of the system. %sys shows the proportion of time the system itself was using the CPU. %wio indicates the percentage of time the system was waiting for I/O. %idle is the proportion of time the CPU was idle. If the %wio or %idle percentages are near zero during nonpeak times, it indicates a CPU-bound system. Remember that an intensive CPU usage level may mean that an operating-system process is hogging CPU, or an Oracle process may be doing the damage. If it is Oracle, a background process such as PMON may be the culprit, or an Oracle user process may be running some extraordinarily bad ad hoc SQL query on the production box. You may sometimes track down such a user and inform the person that you re killing the process in the interest of the welfare of the entire system. Imagine your surprise when you find that the user s Oracle process is hale and hearty, while merrily continuing to devastate your system in the middle of a busy day. This could happen because a child process or a bequeath process continued to run even after you killed this user. It pays to double-check that the user is gone lock, stock, and barrel instead of assuming that the job has been done. That said, let s look at some of the common events that could cause CPU-related slowdowns on your system.
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The Run Queue Length
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One of the main indicators of a heavily loaded CPU system is the length of the run queue. A longer run queue means that more processes are lined up, waiting for CPU processing time. Occasional blips in the run-queue length aren t bad, but prolonged high run-queue lengths indicate that the system is CPU bound.
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CHAPTER 20 PERFOR MAN CE TUNING: TUNING THE INSTA NCE
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CPU Units Used by Processes
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You can determine the number of CPU units a UNIX process is using by using the simple process (ps) command, as shown here: $ ps -ef UID oracle oracle oracle oracle oracle oracle $ | grep PID 20108 883 7090 15292 18654 24316 f60 PPID C STIME TTY 4768 0 09:11:49 4768 5 17:12:21 4768 16 09:18:46 4768 101 15:49:21 4768 0 14:44:23 4768 0 15:53:33 TIME 0:28 0:06 1:08 1:53 1:18 0:52 CMD f60webm f60webm f60webm f60webm f60webm f60webm
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The key column to watch is the fourth one from the left, which indicates the CPU units of processing that each process is using. If each CPU on a server has 100 units, the Oracle process with PID 15292 (the fourth in the preceding list) is occupying more than an entire CPU s processing power. If you have only two processors altogether, you should worry about this process and why it s so CPU intensive.
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