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Finding High CPU Users
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If the CPU usage levels are high, you need to find out which of your users are among the top CPU consumers. Listing 20-9 shows how you can easily identify those users. Listing 20-9. Identifying High CPU Users SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SELECT n.username, s.sid, s.value FROM v$sesstat s,v$statname t, v$session n WHERE s.statistic# = t.statistic# AND n.sid = s.sid AND t.name='CPU used by this session' ORDER BY s.value desc; SID ----152 103 167 87 130 66 73 VALUE -------20745 4944 4330 3699 3694 3344 3286
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USERNAME --------------JOHLMAN NROBERTS JOHLMAN LROLLINS JENGMAN JPATEL NALAPATI SQL>
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Listing 20-9 shows that CPU usage isn t uniformly spread across the users. You need to investigate why one user is using such a significant quantity of resources. If you need to, you can control CPU usage by a single user or a group of users by using the Database Resource Manager. You can also find out session-level CPU usage information by using the V$SESSTAT view, as shown in Listing 20-10.
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CH A PT ER 2 0 PERF O RMAN CE TUNI NG: TUN ING TH E I NS TA NCE
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Listing 20-10. Determining Session-Level CPU Usage SQL> 2 3 4* SELECT sid, s.value "Total CPU Used by this Session" FROM V$SESSTAT S WHERE S.statistic# = 12 ORDER BY S,value DESC; SID ----496 542 111 731 424 SQL> Total CPU Used by this Session -----------------------------27623 21325 20814 17089 15228
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What Is the CPU Time Used For
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It would be a mistake to treat all CPU time as equal. CPU time is generally understood as the processor time taken to perform various tasks, such as the following: Loading SQL statements into the library cache Searching the shared pool for parsed versions of SQL statements Parsing the SQL statements Querying the data dictionary Reading data from the buffer cache Traversing index trees to fetch index keys The total CPU time used by an instance (or a session) can be viewed as the sum of the following components: total CPU time = parsing CPU usage + recursive CPU usage + other CPU usage Ideally, your total CPU usage numbers should show a small proportion of the first two categories of CPU usage parsing and recursive CPU usage. For example, for a session-wide estimate of CPU usage, you can run the query shown in Listing 20-11. Listing 20-11. Decomposition of Total CPU Usage SQL> SELECT name,value FROM V$SYSSTAT 2 WHERE NAME IN ('CPU used by this session', 3 'recursive cpu usage', 4 *'parse time cpu'); NAME ------------------------recursive cpu usage CPU used by this session parse time cpu 3 rows selected. SQL> VALUE --------4713085 98196187 132947
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CHAPTER 20 PERFOR MAN CE TUNING: TUNING THE INSTA NCE
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In this example, the sum of recursive CPU usage and parse time CPU usage is a small proportion of total CPU usage. You need to be concerned if the parsing or recursive CPU usage is a significant part of total CPU usage. Let s see how you can go about reducing the CPU usage attributable to these various components.
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Note In the following examples, you can examine CPU usage at the instance level by using the V$SYSSTAT view or at an individual session level by using the V$SESSTAT view. Just remember that the column total CPU used by this session in the V$SYSSTAT view refers to the sum of the CPU used by all the sessions combined.
Parse Time CPU Usage
As you learned at the beginning of this chapter, parsing is an expensive operation that you should reduce to a minimum. In the following example, the parse time CPU usage is quite low as a percentage of total CPU usage. The first query tells you that the total CPU usage in your instance is 49159124: SQL> SELECT name, value FROM V$SYSSTAT 2* WHERE name LIKE '%CPU%'; NAME --------------------------CPU used when call started CPU used by this session 2 rows selected. SQL> VALUE -------13220745 49159124
The next query shows that the parse time CPU usage is 96431, which is an insignificant proportion of total CPU usage in your database: SQL> SELECT name, value FROM V$SYSSTAT 2 WHERE name LIKE '%parse%'; NAME -------------------parse time cpu parse time elapsed parse count (total) parse count (hard) 4 rows selected. SQL> VALUE -------96431 295451 3147900 29139
Listing 20-12 shows an example of a session whose CPU usage is predominantly due to high parse time. Listing 20-12. Determining Parse Time CPU Usage SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SELECT a.value " Tot_CPU_Used_This_Session", b.value "Total_Parse_Count", c.value "Hard_Parse_Count", d.value "Parse_Time_CPU" FROM v$sysstat a, v$sysstat b, v$sysstat c, v$sysstat d
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