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The way you configure your disk system has a profound impact on your I/O rates. You have to address several issues when you re planning your disk system. Important factors that have a bearing on your I/O are as follows: Choice of RAID configuration: 3 covered RAID system configuration in detail. Just remember that a RAID 5 configuration doesn t give you ideal I/O performance if your application involves a large number of writes. For faster performance, make sure you use a configuration that involves striping your disks, preferably according to the Oracle guidelines. Raw devices or operating system file systems: Under some circumstances, you can benefit by using raw devices, which bypass the operating system buffer cache. Raw devices have their own drawbacks, though, including limited backup features, and you want to be sure the benefits outweigh the drawbacks. Raw devices in general provide faster I/O capabilities and give better performance for a write-intensive application. You might also want to consider alternative file systems such as VERITAS s VXFSS, which helps large I/O operations through its direct I/O option. I/O size: I/O size is in terms of the Oracle block size. The minimum size of I/O depends on your block size, and the maximum size depends on the DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT initialization parameter. If your application is OLTP based, the I/O size needs to be small, and if your application is oriented toward a DSS, the I/O size needs to be much larger. As of Oracle Database 10.2, the database automatically tunes this parameter, if you don t set it.
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Logical volume stripe sizes: Stripe size (or stripe width) is a function of the stripe depth and the number of drives in the striped set. If you stripe across multiple disks, your database s I/O performance will be higher and its load balancing will be enhanced. Make sure that the stripe size is larger than the average I/O request; otherwise, you ll be making multiple I/Os for a single I/O request by Oracle. If you have multiple concurrent I/O requests, your stripe size should be much larger than the I/O size. Most modern LVMs can dynamically reconfigure the stripe size. Number of controllers and disks: The number of spindles and the number of controllers are both important variables in determining disk performance. Even if you have a large number of spindles, you could conceivably run into contention at the controller level. Distribution of I/O: Your goal should be to avoid a lopsided distribution of I/O in your disk system. If you re using an LVM or using striping at the hardware level, you don t have a whole lot to worry about in this area. However, if you aren t using an LVM or using striping at the hardware level, you should manually arrange your datafiles on the disks such that the I/O rate is fairly even across the system. Note that your tables and indexes are usually required to be in different tablespaces, but there is no rule that they have to be placed on different disks. Because the index is read before the table, they can coexist on the same disk.
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Measuring I/O Performance
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You have a choice of several excellent tools to measure I/O performance. Several operating system utilities are easy to use and give you information about how busy your disks are. Iostat and sar are two of the popular operating system utilities that measure disk performance. I explained how to use both these tools in 3.
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Is the I/O Optimally Distributed
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From the sar output, you can figure out whether you re using the storage subsystem heavily. If the number of waits is higher than the number of CPUs, or if the service times are high (say, greater than 20 milliseconds), then your system is facing contention at the I/O level. One of the most useful pieces of information you can get is by using the sar d command to find out if you re using any of your disks excessively compared to other disks in the system. Once you identify such hot spots, you can move the datafiles to less busy drives, thereby spreading the load more evenly. The following is the output of a sar d command that shows extremely high queue values. Even at peak levels, the avque column value should be less than 2. Here, it is 61.4. Obviously, something is happening on the file system named c2t6d0 that s showing up as a high queue value: $ sar -d 10 5 HP-UX finance1 B.11.00 A 9000/800 17:27:13 device %busy avque 17:27:23 c2t6d0 100 61.40 c5t6d0 20.38 0.50 c2t6d0 100 61.40 c5t6d0 18.28 0.50 c0t1d0 0.10 0.50 . . . $ 07/03/08 r+w/s blks/s 37 245 28 208 38 273 27 233 4 33
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