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Is the Database Load Too High
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If you have baseline numbers for the database load, you can see whether the current load on the database is relatively too high. Pay attention to the following data, which you can obtain from the V$SYSSTAT view: physical reads and writes, redo size, hard and soft parse counts, and user calls. You can also check the Load Profile section of the AWR report for load data that s normalized over transactions and over time.
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Checking Memory-Related Issues
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As you saw earlier in this chapter, high buffer cache and shared pool hit ratios aren t guarantees of efficient instance performance. Sometimes, an excessive preoccupation with hit ratios can lead you to allocate too much memory to Oracle, which opens the door to serious problems such as paging and swapping at the operating-system level. Make sure that the paging and swapping indicators don t show anything abnormal. High amounts of paging and swapping slow down everything, including the databases on the server. Due to the virtual memory system used by most operating systems, a certain amount of paging is normal and to be expected. If physical memory isn t enough to process the demand for memory, the operating system will go to the disk to use its virtual memory, and this results in a page fault. Processes that result in high page faults are going to run slowly. When it comes to Oracle memory allocation, don t forget to pay proper attention to PGA memory allocation, especially if you re dealing with a DSS-type environment. Databases that perform a large number of heavy sorting and hashing activities need a high amount of PGA memory allocation. The database self-tunes the PGA, but you still have to ensure that the pga_aggregate_target value is high enough for Oracle to perform its magic.
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Tip Unlike the SGA, the PGA memory allocation isn t immediately and permanently allocated to the Oracle database. Oracle is allowed to use PGA memory up to the limit specified by the PGA_TARGET parameter. Once a user s job finishes executing, the PGA memory used by the job is released back to the operating system. Therefore, you shouldn t hesitate to use a high value for the PGA_TARGET initialization parameter. There s absolutely no downside to using a high number, and it guarantees that your instance won t suffer unnecessary disk sorting and hashing.
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See whether you can terminate a few of the Top Sessions that seem to be consuming inordinate amounts of memory. It s quite possible that some of these processes are orphan or runaway processes.
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Are the Redo Logs Sized Correctly
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If the redo logs are too few or if they are too small relative to the DML activity in the database, the archiver process will have to work extra hard to archive the filled redo log files. This may cause a slowdown in the instance. It s easy to resize the redo logs or add more redo log groups. When you use the FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET parameter to impose a ceiling on instance recovery time, Oracle will checkpoint as frequently as necessary to ensure the instance can recover from a crash within the MTTR setting. You must ensure that the redo logs are sized large enough to avoid additional checkpointing. You can get the optimal redo log size from the OPTIMAL_LOGFILE_SIZE column from the V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY view. You can also use the Database Control s Redo Log Groups page to get advice on sized redo logs. As a rule of thumb, Oracle recommends that you size the log files so they switch every 20 minutes.
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CHAPTER 20 PERFOR MAN CE TUNING: TUNING THE INSTA NCE
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Is the System Wait Bound
If none of the previous steps indicated any problems, chances are that your system is suffering from a serious contention for some resource such as library cache latches. Check to see whether there s contention for critical database resources such as locks and latches. For example, parsing similar SQL statements leads to an excessive use of CPU resources and affects instance performance by increasing the contention for the library cache or the shared pool. Contention for resources manifests itself in the form of wait events. The wait event analysis earlier in this chapter gave you a detailed explanation of various critical wait events. You can use AWR and ASH reports to examine the top wait events in your database. The V$SESS_TIME_MODEL (and the V$SYS_TIME_MODEL) view is useful in finding out accumulated time for various database operations at the individual session level. This view helps you understand precisely where most of the CPU time is being spent. As explained in 17, the V$SESS_TIME_MODEL view shows the following things, among others: DB time, which is the elapsed time spent in performing database user-level calls. DB CPU is the amount of CPU time spent on database user-level calls. Background CPU time is the amount of CPU time used by the background processes. Hard parse elapsed time is the time spent hard parsing SQL statements. PL/SQL execution elapsed time is the amount of time spent running the PL/SQL interpreter. Connection management call elapsed time is the amount of time spent making session connect and disconnect calls. You can use segment data in the V$SEGMENT_STATISTICS view to find out the hot table and index segments causing a particular type of wait, and focus on eliminating (or reducing, anyway) that wait event.
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