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APPENDIX ORAC LE DATABA SE 11G S QL A ND PL/SQL: A BRIEF PRIMER
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Hypothetical ranks and distributions: These help you figure out how a new value for a column fits into existing data in terms of its rank and distribution. Histograms: These functions return the number of the histogram data appropriate for each row in a table. First/last aggregates: These functions are appropriate when you are using the GROUP BY clause to sort data into groups. Aggregate functions let you specify the sort order for the groups.
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Hierarchical Retrieval of Data
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If a table contains hierarchical data (data that can be grouped into levels, with the parent data at higher levels and child data at lower levels), you can use Oracle s hierarchical queries. Hierarchical queries typically use the following structure: The START WITH clause denotes the root row or rows for the hierarchical relationship. The CONNECT BY clause specifies the relationship between parent and child rows, with the prior operator always pointing out the parent row. Listing A-2 shows a hierarchical relationship between the employees and manager columns. The CONNECT BY clause describes the relationship. The START WITH clause specifies where the statement should start tracing the hierarchy. Listing A-2. A Hierarchical Relationship Between Data SQL> SELECT employee_id, last_name, manager_id FROM employees START WITH manager_id = 100 CONNECT BY PRIOR employee_id = manager_id; EMPLOYEE_ID LAST_NAME MANAGER_ID ----------- -------------- ---------101 Reddy 100 108 Greenberg 101 109 Faviet 108 110 Colon 108 111 Chowdhary 108 112 Urman 108 113 Singh 108 200 Whalen 101 SQL>
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Selecting Data from Multiple Tables
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So far, we ve mostly looked at how to perform various DML operations on single tables, including using SQL functions and expressions. However, in real life, you ll mostly deal with query output retrieved from several tables or views. When you need to retrieve data from several tables, you need to join the tables. A join is a query that lets you combine data from tables, views, and materialized views. Note that a table can be joined to other tables or to itself. The Cartesian product or Cartesian join is simply a join of two tables without a selective WHERE clause. Therefore, the query output will consist of all rows from both tables. Here s an example of a Cartesian join: SQL> SELECT * FROM employees, dept;
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A PPEN DI X O RA CLE D AT A BASE 11G S Q L AND PL/S QL: A BRI EF PRIME R
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Cartesian products of two large tables are almost always the result of a mistaken SQL query that omits the join condition. By using a join condition when you re combining data from two or more tables, you can limit the number of rows returned. A join condition can be used in the WHERE clause or the FROM clause, and it limits the data returned by selecting only data that satisfies the condition stipulated by the join condition. Here s an example of a join statement that uses a join condition: SQL> SELECT * FROM employees, dept WHERE dept='HR';
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Types of Oracle Joins
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Oracle offers various types of joins based on the way you combine rows from two or more tables or views. The next sections discuss the most commonly used types of Oracle joins.
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Equi-Join
With an equi-join, two or more tables are joined based on an equality condition between two columns. In other words, the same column has the same value in all the tables that are being joined. Here s an example: SQL> SELECT e.last_name, d.dept FROM emp e, dept d WHERE e.emp_id = d.emp_id; You can also use the following new syntax for the preceding join statement: SQL> SELECT e.last_name, d.dept FROM emp e JOIN dept d USING (emp_id); If you want to join multiple columns, you can do so by using a comma-delimited list of column names, as in USING (dept_id, emp_name).
Natural Join
A natural join is an equi-join where you don t specify any columns to be matched for the join. Oracle will automatically determine the columns to be joined, based on the matching columns in the two tables. Here s an example: SQL> SELECT e.last_name, d.dept FROM emp e NATURAL JOIN dept d; In the preceding example, the join is based on identical values for the last_name column in both the emp and dept tables.
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