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APPENDIX ORAC LE DATABA SE 11G S QL A ND PL/SQL: A BRIEF PRIMER
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The GROUP BY Clause with a GROUPING Operator
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As you ve seen, the ROLLUP operator gets you the superaggregate subtotals and grand totals. The GROUPING operator in a GROUP BY clause helps you distinguish between superaggregated subtotals and the grand total column from the other row data.
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The GROUP BY Clause with a GROUPING SETS Operator
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The GROUPING SETS operator lets you group multiple sets of columns when you re calculating aggregates such as sums. Here s an example that shows how you can use this operator to calculate aggregates over three groupings: (year, region, item), (year, item), and (region, item). The GROUPING SETS operator eliminates the need for inefficient UNION ALL operators. SQL> SELECT year, region, item, sum(sales) FROM regional_salesitem GROUP BY GROUPING SETS (( year, region, item), (year, item), (region, item));
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The GROUP BY Clause with a HAVING Operator
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The HAVING operator lets you restrict or exclude the results of a GROUP BY operation, in essence putting a WHERE condition on the GROUP BY clause s result set. In the following example, the HAVING operator restricts the query results to only those departments that have a maximum salary greater than 20,000: SQL> 2 3 4* SELECT department_id, max(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY department_id HAVING MAX(salary)>20000; MAX(SALARY) ----------24000
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DEPARTMENT_ID ------------90 SQL>
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Subqueries resolve queries that have to be processed in multiple steps where the final result depends on the results of a child query or subquery to the main query. If the subquery occurs in the WHERE clause of the statement, it s called a nested subquery.
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Top-N Analysis
The following query gives you the top ten employees in a firm ranked by salary. You can just as easily retrieve the bottom ten employees by using the ORDER BY clause instead of the ORDER BY DESC clause. SQL> SELECT emp_id, emp_name, job, manager, salary FROM (SELECT emp_id, emp_name, job, manager, salary, RANK() OVER (ORDER BY SALARY DESC NULLS LAST) AS Employee_Rank FROM employees ORDER BY SALARY DESC NULLS LAST) WHERE employee_Rank < 5; Subqueries can be single-row or multiple-row SQL statements. Let s take a quick look at both types of subqueries.
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Single-Row Subqueries
Subqueries are useful when you need to answer queries on the basis of as-yet unknown values, such as Which employees have a salary higher than the employee with the employee ID 9999 To answer such a question, a subquery or inner query is executed first (and only once). The result of this subquery is then used by the main or outer query. Here s the query: SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 SELECT first_name||last_name, dept FROM employee WHERE sal > (SELECT sal FROM emp WHERE empno= 9999);
Multiple-Row Subqueries
A multiple-row subquery returns multiple rows in the output, so you need to use multiple-row comparison operators, such as IN, ANY, and ALL. Using a single-row operator with a multiple-row subquery returns this common Oracle error: ERROR: ORA-01427: single-row subquery returns more than one row
Multiple-Column Subqueries
Multiple-column subqueries are queries where the inner query retrieves the values of more than one column. The rows in the subquery are then evaluated in the main query in pair-wise comparison, column by column and row by row.
Advanced Subqueries
Correlated subqueries are more complex than regular subqueries and answer questions such as What are the names of all employees whose salary is below the average salary of their department The inner query computes the average salary, and the outer or main query gets the employee information. However, for each employee in the main (outer) query, the inner query has to be computed, because department averages depend on the department number of the employee in the outer query.
The Exists and Not Exists Operators
The EXISTS operator tests for the existence of rows in the inner query or subquery when you re using subqueries. The NOT EXISTS operator tests for the nonexistence of rows in the inner query. In the following statement, the EXISTS operator will be TRUE if the subquery returns at least one row: SQL> SELECT department_id FROM departments d WHERE EXISTS (SELECT * FROM employees e WHERE d.department_id = e.department_id);
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