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The WHILE loop specifies that a certain statement be executed while a certain condition is true. Note that the condition is evaluated outside the loop. Each time the statements within the LOOP and END LOOP statements are executed, the condition is evaluated. When the condition no longer holds true, the loop is exited. Here s an example of the WHILE loop: WHILE total <= 25000 LOOP . . . SELECT sal INTO salary FROM emp WHERE . . . total := total + salary; END LOOP;
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The FOR Loop
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The FOR loop is used when you want a statement to be executed a certain number of times. The FOR loop emulates the classic do loop that exists in most programming languages. Here s an example of the FOR loop: BEGIN FOR count_num IN 1..100 LOOP dbms_output.put_line('The current count is : END LOOP; END;
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'|| count_num);
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PL/SQL Records
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Records in PL/SQL let you treat related data as a single unit. Records contain fields, with each field standing for a different item. You can use the %ROWTYPE attribute to declare a table s columns as a
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A PPEN DI X O RA CLE D AT A BASE 11G S Q L AND PL/S QL: A BRI EF PRIME R
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record, which uses the table as a cursor template, or you can create your own records. Here s a simple example of a record: DECLARE TYPE MeetingTyp IS RECORD ( date_held DATE, location VARCHAR2(20), purpose VARCHAR2(50)); To reference an individual field in a record, you use dot notation, as shown here: MeetingTyp.location
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Using Cursors
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An Oracle cursor is a handle to an area in memory that holds the result set of a SQL query, enabling you to individually process the rows in the result set. Oracle uses implicit cursors for all DML statements. Explicit cursors are created and used by application coders.
Implicit Cursors
Implicit cursors are automatically used by Oracle every time you use a SELECT statement in PL/SQL. You can use implicit cursors in statements that return just one row. If your SQL statement returns more than one row, an error will result. In the following PL/SQL code block, the SELECT statement makes use of an implicit cursor: DECLARE emp_name varchar2(40); salary float; BEGIN SELECT emp_name, salary FROM employees WHERE employee_id=9999; dbms_output.put_line('employee_name : '||emp_name||' salary :'||salary); END; /
Explicit Cursors
Explicit cursors are created by the application developer, and they facilitate operations with a set of rows, which can be processed one by one. You always use explicit cursors when you know your SQL statement will return more than one row. Notice that you have to declare an explicit cursor in the DECLARE section at the beginning of the PL/SQL block, unlike an implicit cursor, which you never refer to in the code. Once you declare your cursor, the explicit cursor will go through these steps: 1. The OPEN clause will identify the rows that are in the cursor and make them available for the PL/SQL program. 2. The FETCH command will retrieve data from the cursor into a specified variable. 3. The cursor should always be explicitly closed after your processing is completed. Listing A-4 shows how a cursor is first created and then used within a loop.
APPENDIX ORAC LE DATABA SE 11G S QL A ND PL/SQL: A BRIEF PRIMER
Listing A-4. Using an Explicit Cursor DECLARE /* The cursor select_emp is explicitly declared */ CURSOR select_emp IS select emp_id, city from employees where city = 'DALLAS'; v_empno employees.emp_id%TYPE; v_empcity employees.city%TYPE; BEGIN /* The cursor select_emp is opened */ Open select _emp; LOOP /* The select_emp cursor data is fetched into v_empno variable */ FETCH select_emp into v_empno; EXIT WHEN select_emp%NOTFOUND; dbms_output.put_line(v_empno|| ','||v_empcity); END LOOP; /* The cursor select_emp is closed */ Close select_emp; END; /
Cursor Attributes
In the example shown in Listing A-4, a special cursor attribute, %NOTFOUND, is used to indicate when the loop should terminate. Cursor attributes are very useful when you re dealing with explicit cursors. Here are the main cursor attributes: %ISOPEN is a Boolean attribute that evaluates to false after the SQL statement completes execution. It returns true as long as the cursor is open. %FOUND is a Boolean attribute that tests whether the SQL statement matches any row that is, whether the cursor has any more rows to fetch. %NOTFOUND is a Boolean attribute that tells you that the SQL statement doesn t match any row, meaning there are no more rows left to fetch. %ROWCOUNT gives you the number of rows the cursor has fetched so far.
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