java qr code Authentication and authorization in Java

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Authentication and authorization
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the Subject class: Subject.doAsPrivileged(Subject, PrivilegedAction, AccessControlContext) or Subject.doAsPrivileged(Subject, PrivilegedExceptionAction, AccessControlContext). In cases where doAsPrivileged() is called with a PrivilegedExceptionAction parameter, if the run() method throws a checked exception, it will wrap it inside PrivilegedActionException before throwing it. Check access The methods that need to ensure authorized access must check the subject s credentials by calling the AccessController.checkPermission() method and passing it a permission object that contains the required permissions. If the user doesn t have sufficient permissions, this method throws an unchecked AccessControlException exception. Create a system-level access control policy At the system level, you write a policy file that grants to a set of subjects permissions to certain operations. The AccessController.checkPermission() method indirectly uses this policy file to grant access only to those operations that are allowed by the accessing subject s credentials and permissions.
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10.5.2 Developing the solution Now that we ve looked at the changes needed in the system to implement authorization, let s look at the modifications we need to make in the banking example. In listing 10.11, we define a simple permission class, BankingPermission. The name string passed in its constructor defines the permissions. We will later map these strings in a security policy file to allow only certain users to access certain functionality.
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Listing 10.11 BankingPermission.java: permission class for banking system authorization
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package banking; import java.security.*; public final class BankingPermission extends BasicPermission { public BankingPermission(String name) { super(name); } public BankingPermission(String name, String actions) { super(name, actions); } }
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Authorization: the conventional way
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The class BankingPermission defines two constructors to match those in the base BasicPermission class. The actions parameter in the second constructor is unused and exists only to instantiate the permission object from a policy file. To learn more, refer to the JDK documentation. Now let s modify the AccountSimpleImpl class to check permission in each of its public methods. Each change is simply a call to AccessController.checkPermission() with a BankingPermission object as an argument. Each BankingPermission needs a name argument to specify the kind of permission sought. We employ a simple scheme that uses the method name itself as the permission string. Listing 10.12 shows the implementation of AccountSimpleImpl where each method checks the permission before executing its core logic.
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Listing 10.12 AccountSimpleImpl.java: the conventional way
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package banking; import java.security.AccessController; public class AccountSimpleImpl implements Account { private int _accountNumber; private float _balance; public AccountSimpleImpl(int accountNumber) { _accountNumber = accountNumber; } public int getAccountNumber() { AccessController.checkPermission( new BankingPermission("getAccountNumber")); ... } public void credit(float amount) { AccessController.checkPermission( new BankingPermission("credit")); ... } public void debit(float amount) throws InsufficientBalanceException { AccessController.checkPermission( new BankingPermission("debit")); ... }
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public float getBalance() { AccessController.checkPermission( new BankingPermission("getBalance")); ... } ... implementation for private methods ... }
We now have an Account implementation that performs access checks for each public operation. We must make similar changes to InterAccountTransferSystem (we ll omit that discussion here for brevity s sake). Next, let s look at the changes needed in our test program (listing 10.13) that invokes these operations.
Listing 10.13 Test.java: the conventional way
package banking; import java.security.*; import javax.security.auth.Subject; import javax.security.auth.login.LoginContext; import com.sun.security.auth.callback.TextCallbackHandler; public class Test { public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception { LoginContext lc = new LoginContext("Sample", new TextCallbackHandler()); lc.login(); final Account account1 = new AccountSimpleImpl(1); final Account account2 = new AccountSimpleImpl(2); Subject authenticatedSubject = lc.getSubject(); Subject .doAsPrivileged(authenticatedSubject, new PrivilegedAction() { public Object run() { account1.credit(300); return null; }}, null); try { Subject .doAsPrivileged(authenticatedSubject, new PrivilegedExceptionAction() {
Authorization: the conventional way
public Object run() throws Exception { account1.debit(200); return null; }}, null); } catch (PrivilegedActionException ex) { Throwable cause = ex.getCause(); if (cause instanceof InsufficientBalanceException) { throw (InsufficientBalanceException)ex.getCause(); } } try { Subject .doAsPrivileged(authenticatedSubject, new PrivilegedExceptionAction() { public Object run() throws Exception { InterAccountTransferSystem .transfer(account1, account2, 100); return null; }}, null); } catch (PrivilegedActionException ex) { Throwable cause = ex.getCause(); if (cause instanceof InsufficientBalanceException) { throw (InsufficientBalanceException)ex.getCause(); } } try { Subject .doAsPrivileged(authenticatedSubject, new PrivilegedExceptionAction() { public Object run() throws Exception { InterAccountTransferSystem .transfer(account1, account2, 100); return null; }}, null); } catch (PrivilegedActionException ex) { Throwable cause = ex.getCause(); if (cause instanceof InsufficientBalanceException) { throw (InsufficientBalanceException)ex.getCause(); } } } }
Clearly, we ve had to use too much code. For each operation needing access control, we create an anonymous class extending either PrivilegedExceptionAction
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