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There are two ways to use the NOLOGGING option. You have already seen one method that of embedding the NOLOGGING keyword in the SQL command. The other method, which involves setting the NOLOGGING attribute on the segment (index or table), allows operations to be performed implicitly in a NOLOGGING mode. For example, I can alter an index or table to be NOLOGGING by default. This means for the index that subsequent rebuilds of this index will not be logged (the index will not generate redo; other indexes and the table itself might, but this index will not): ops$tkyte@ORA10G> create index t_idx on t(object_name); Index created. ops$tkyte@ORA10G> @mystat "redo size" ops$tkyte@ORA10G> set echo off NAME VALUE ---------- ---------redo size 13567908 ops$tkyte@ORA10G> alter index t_idx rebuild; Index altered. ops$tkyte@ORA10G> @mystat2 ops$tkyte@ORA10G> set echo off NAME V DIFF ---------- ---------- ---------------redo size 15603436 2,035,528 When the index is in LOGGING mode (the default), a rebuild of it generated 2MB of redo log. However, we can alter the index: ops$tkyte@ORA10G> alter index t_idx nologging; Index altered. ops$tkyte@ORA10G> @mystat "redo size" ops$tkyte@ORA10G> set echo off NAME VALUE ---------- ---------redo size 15605792
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ops$tkyte@ORA10G> alter index t_idx rebuild; Index altered. ops$tkyte@ORA10G> @mystat2 ops$tkyte@ORA10G> set echo off NAME V DIFF ---------- ---------- ---------------redo size 15668084 62,292 and now it generates a mere 61KB of redo. But that index is unprotected now, if the data files it was located in failed and had to be restored from a backup, we would lose that index data. Understanding that fact is crucial. The index is not recoverable right now we need a backup to take place. Alternatively, the DBA could just re-create the index as we can re-create the index directly from the table data as well.
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The operations that may be performed in a NOLOGGING mode are as follows: Index creations and ALTERs (rebuilds). Bulk INSERTs into a table using a direct path insert such as that available via the /*+ APPEND */ hint or SQL*Loader direct path loads. The table data will not generate redo, but all index modifications will (the indexes on this nonlogged table will generate redo!). LOB operations (updates to large objects do not have to be logged). Table creations via CREATE TABLE AS SELECT. Various ALTER TABLE operations such as MOVE and SPLIT. Used appropriately on an ARCHIVELOG mode database, NOLOGGING can speed up many operations by dramatically reducing the amount of redo log generated. Suppose you have a table you need to move from one tablespace to another. You can schedule this operation to take place immediately before a backup occurs you would ALTER the table to be NOLOGGING, move it, rebuild the indexes (without logging as well), and then ALTER the table back to logging mode. Now, an operation that might have taken X hours can happen in X/2 hours perhaps (I m not promising a 50 percent reduction in runtime!). The appropriate use of this feature includes involvement of the DBA, or whoever is responsible for database backup and recovery or any standby databases. If that person is not aware of the use of this feature, and a media failure occurs, you may lose data, or the integrity of the standby database might be compromised. This is something to seriously consider.
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I get this question all of the time. You are getting warning messages to this effect (this will be found in alert.log on your server): Thread 1 cannot allocate new log, sequence 1466 Checkpoint not complete Current log# 3 seq# 1465 mem# 0: /home/ora10g/oradata/ora10g/redo03.log It might say Archival required instead of Checkpoint not complete, but the effect is pretty much the same. This is really something the DBA should be looking out for. This message will be written to alert.log on the server whenever the database attempts to reuse an online redo log file and finds that it cannot. This will happen when DBWR has not yet finished checkpointing the data protected by the redo log or ARCH has not finished copying the redo log file to the archive destination. At this point in time, the database effectively halts as far as the end user is concerned. It stops cold. DBWR or ARCH will be given priority to flush the blocks to disk. Upon completion of the checkpoint or archival, everything goes back to normal. The reason the database suspends user activity is that there is simply no place to record the changes the users are making. Oracle is attempting to reuse an online redo log file, but because either the file would be needed to recover the database in the event of a failure (Checkpoint not complete), or the archiver has not yet finished copying it (Archival required), Oracle must wait (and the end users will wait) until the redo log file can safely be reused. If you see that your sessions spend a lot of time waiting on a log file switch, log buffer space, or log file switch checkpoint or archival incomplete, then you are most likely hitting this. You will notice it during prolonged periods of database modifications if your log files are sized incorrectly, or because DBWR and ARCH need to be tuned by the DBA or system administrator. I frequently see this issue with the starter database that has not been customized. The starter database typically sizes the redo logs far too small for any sizable amount of work (including the initial database build of the data dictionary itself). As soon as you start loading up the database, you will notice that the first 1,000 rows go fast, and then things start going in spurts: 1,000 go fast, then hang, then go fast, then hang, and so on. These are the indications you are hitting this condition. There are a couple of things you can do to solve this issue: Make DBWR faster. Have your DBA tune DBWR by enabling ASYNC I/O, using DBWR I/O slaves, or using multiple DBWR processes. Look at the I/O on the system and see if one disk, or a set of disks, is hot so you need to therefore spread out the data. The same general advice applies for ARCH as well. The pros of this are that you get something for nothing here increased performance without really changing any logic/structures/code. There really are no downsides to this approach. Add more redo log files. This will postpone the Checkpoint not complete in some cases and, after a while, it will postpone the Checkpoint not complete so long that it perhaps doesn t happen (because you gave DBWR enough breathing room to checkpoint). The same applies to the Archival required message. The benefit to this approach is the removal of the pauses in your system. The downside is it consumes more disk, but the benefit far outweighs any downside here.
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