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CHAPTER 4 MEMORY STRUCTURES
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To ensure we re using manual memory management, we ll set it specifically and specify our rather small sort area size of 64KB. Also, we ll identify our session ID (SID) so we can monitor the memory usage for that session. ops$tkyte@ORA10G> alter session set workarea_size_policy=manual; Session altered. ops$tkyte@ORA10G> select SID ---------151 Now, we need to measure SID 151 s memory from a second separate session. If we used the same session, then our query to see how much memory we are using for sorting might itself influence the very numbers we are looking at. To measure the memory from this second session, we ll use a small SQL*Plus script I developed for this. It is actually a pair of scripts. The one we want to watch that resets a small table and sets a SQL*Plus variable to the SID is called reset_stat.sql: drop table sess_stats; create table sess_stats ( name varchar2(64), value number, diff number ); variable sid number exec :sid := &1 sid from v$mystat where rownum = 1;
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Note Before using this script (or any script, for that matter), make sure you understand what the script
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does. This script is dropping and re-creating a table called SESS_STATS. If your schema already has such a table, you ll probably want to use a different name!
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The other script is called watch_stat.sql, and for this case study, it uses the MERGE SQL statement so we can initially INSERT the statistic values for a session and then later come back and update them without needing a separate INSERT/UPDATE script: merge into sess_stats using ( select a.name, b.value from v$statname a, v$sesstat b where a.statistic# = b.statistic# and b.sid = :sid and (a.name like '%ga %' or a.name like '%direct temp%') ) curr_stats
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CHAPTER 4 MEMORY STRUCTURES
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on (sess_stats.name = curr_stats.name) when matched then update set diff = curr_stats.value - sess_stats.value, value = curr_stats.value when not matched then insert ( name, value, diff ) values ( curr_stats.name, curr_stats.value, null ) / select * from sess_stats order by name; I emphasized the phrase for this case study because of the lines in bold the names of the statistics we re interested in looking at change from example to example. In this particular case, we re interested in anything with ga in it (pga and uga), or anything with direct temp, which in Oracle 10g will show us the direct reads and writes against temporary space (how much I/O we did reading and writing to temp).
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Note In Oracle9i, direct I/O to temporary space was not labeled as such. We would use a WHERE clause
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that included and (a.name like '%ga %'or a.name like '%physical % direct%') in it.
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When this watch_stat.sql script is run from the SQL*Plus command line, we ll see a listing of the PGA and UGA memory statistics for the session, as well as temporary I/O. Before we do anything in session 151, the session using manual PGA memory management, let s use this script to find out how much memory that session is currently using and how many temporary I/Os we have performed: ops$tkyte@ORA10G> @watch_stat 6 rows merged.
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NAME VALUE DIFF ------------------------------------------- ---------- ---------physical reads direct temporary tablespace 0 physical writes direct temporary tablespace 0 session pga memory 498252 session pga memory max 498252 session uga memory 152176 session uga memory max 152176 So, before we begin we can see that we have about 149KB (152,176/1,024) of data in the UGA and 487KB of data in the PGA. The first question is How much memory are we using between the PGA and UGA That is, are we using 149KB + 487KB of memory, or are we using
CHAPTER 4 MEMORY STRUCTURES
some other amount This is a trick question, and one that you cannot answer unless you know whether the monitored session with SID 151 was connected to the database via a dedicated server or a shared server and even then it might be hard to figure out. In dedicated server mode, the UGA is totally contained within the PGA, in which case we would be consuming 487KB of memory in our process or thread. In shared server, the UGA is allocated from the SGA, and the PGA is in the shared server. So, in shared server mode, by the time we get the last row from the preceding query, the shared server process may be in use by someone else. That PGA isn t ours anymore, so technically we are using 149KB of memory (except when we are actually running the query, at which point we are using 487KB of memory between the combined PGA and UGA). So, let s now run the first big query in session 151, which is using manual PGA memory management in dedicated server mode. Note that we are using the same script from earlier, so the SQL text matches exactly, thus avoiding the hard parse:
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