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PMON: The Process Monitor
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This process is responsible for cleaning up after abnormally terminated connections. For example, if your dedicated server fails or is killed for some reason, PMON is the process responsible for fixing (recovering or undoing work) and releasing your resources. PMON will initiate the rollback of uncommitted work, release locks, and free SGA resources allocated to the failed process. In addition to cleaning up after aborted connections, PMON is responsible for monitoring the other Oracle background processes and restarting them if necessary (and if possible). If a shared server or a dispatcher fails (crashes), PMON will step in and restart another one (after cleaning up for the failed process). PMON will watch all of the Oracle processes and either restart them or terminate the instance as appropriate. For example, it is appropriate to fail the instance in the event the database log writer process, LGWR, fails. This is a serious error, and the safest path of action is to terminate the instance immediately and let normal recovery fix the data. (Note that this is a rare occurrence and should be reported to Oracle Support immediately.) The other thing PMON does for the instance is to register it with the Oracle TNS listener. When an instance starts up, the PMON process polls the well-known port address, unless directed otherwise, to see whether or not a listener is up and running. The well-known/default port used by Oracle is 1521. Now, what happens if the listener is started on some different port In this case, the mechanism is the same, except that the listener address needs to be explicitly specified by the LOCAL_LISTENER parameter setting. If the listener is running when the database instance is started, PMON communicates with the listener and passes to it relevant parameters, such as the service name and load metrics of the instance. If the listener was not started, PMON will periodically attempt to contact it to register itself.
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SMON: The System Monitor
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SMON is the process that gets to do all of the system-level jobs. Whereas PMON was interested in individual processes, SMON takes a system-level perspective of things and is a sort of garbage collector for the database. Some of the jobs it does include the following: Cleans up temporary space: With the advent of true temporary tablespaces, the chore of cleaning up temporary space has lessened, but it has not gone away. For example, when building an index, the extents allocated for the index during the creation are marked as TEMPORARY. If the CREATE INDEX session is aborted for some reason, SMON is responsible for cleaning them up. Other operations create temporary extents that SMON would be responsible for as well. Coalesces free space: If you are using dictionary-managed tablespaces, SMON is responsible for taking extents that are free in a tablespace and contiguous with respect to each other and coalescing them into one larger free extent. This occurs only on dictionary-managed tablespaces with a default storage clause that has pctincrease set to a nonzero value. Recovers transactions active against unavailable files: This is similar to its role during database startup. Here, SMON recovers failed transactions that were skipped during instance/crash recovery due to a file(s) not being available to recover. For example, the file may have been on a disk that was unavailable or not mounted. When the file does become available, SMON will recover it.
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CHAPTER 5 ORACLE PROCESSES
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Performs instance recovery of a failed node in RAC: In an Oracle RAC configuration, when a database instance in the cluster fails (e.g., the machine the instance was executing on fails), some other node in the cluster will open that failed instance s redo log files and perform a recovery of all data for that failed instance. Cleans up OBJ$: OBJ$ is a low-level data dictionary table that contains an entry for almost every object (table, index, trigger, view, and so on) in the database. Many times, there are entries in here that represent deleted objects, or objects that represent not there objects, used in Oracle s dependency mechanism. SMON is the process that removes these rows that are no longer needed. Shrinks undo segments: SMON will perform the automatic shrinking of a rollback segment to its optimal size, if it is set. Offlines rollback segments: It is possible for the DBA to offline, or make unavailable, a rollback segment that has active transactions. It may be possible that active transactions are using this offlined rollback segment. In this case, the rollback is not really offlined; it is marked as pending offline. In the background, SMON will periodically try to truly take it offline, until it succeeds.
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That should give you a flavor of what SMON does. It does many other things, such as flush the monitoring statistics that show up in the DBA_TAB_MONITORING view, flush the SCN to timestamp mapping information found in the SMON_SCN_TIME table, and so on. The SMON process can accumulate quite a lot of CPU over time, and this should be considered normal. SMON periodically wakes up (or is woken up by the other background processes) to perform these housekeeping chores.
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