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Blocking occurs when one session holds a lock on a resource that another session is requesting. As a result, the requesting session will be blocked it will hang until the holding session gives up the locked resource. In almost every case, blocking is avoidable. In fact, if you do find that your session is blocked in an interactive application, then you have probably been suffering from the lost update bug as well, perhaps without realizing it. That is, your application logic is flawed and that is the cause of the blocking. The five common DML statements that will block in the database are INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, MERGE, and SELECT FOR UPDATE. The solution to a blocked SELECT FOR UPDATE is trivial: simply add the NOWAIT clause and it will no longer block. Instead, your application will report back to the end user that the row is already locked. The interesting cases are the remaining four DML statements. We ll look at each of them and see why they should not block and how to correct the situation if they do.
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There are few times when an INSERT will block. The most common scenario is when you have a table with a primary key or unique constraint placed on it and two sessions attempt to insert a row with the same value. One of the sessions will block until the other session either commits (in which case the blocked session will receive an error about a duplicate value) or rolls back (in which case the blocked session succeeds). Another case involves tables linked together via referential integrity constraints. An INSERT into a child table may become blocked if the parent row it depends on is being created or deleted. Blocked INSERTs typically happen with applications that allow the end user to generate the primary key/unique column value. This situation is most easily avoided by using a sequence or the SYS_GUID() built-in function to generate the primary key/unique column value. Sequences/SYS_GUID() were designed to be highly concurrent methods of generating unique keys in a multiuser environment. In the event that you cannot use either and must allow the end user to generate a key that might be duplicated, you can use the following technique, which avoids the issue by using manual locks implemented via the built-in DBMS_LOCK package.
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Note The following example demonstrates how to prevent a session from blocking on an insert statement ( )
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due to a primary key or unique constraint. It should be stressed that the fix demonstrated here should be considered a short-term solution while the application architecture itself is inspected. This approach adds obvious overhead and should not be implemented lightly. A well-designed application would not encounter this issue. This should be considered a last resort and is definitely not something you want to do to every table in your application just in case.
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CHAPTER 6 LOCKING AND LATCHING
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With inserts, there s no existing row to select and lock; there s no way to prevent others from inserting a row with the same value, thus blocking our session and causing an indefinite wait. Here is where DBMS_LOCK comes into play. To demonstrate this technique, we will create a table with a primary key and a trigger that will prevent two (or more) sessions from inserting the same values simultaneously. The trigger will use DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE to hash the primary key into some number between 0 and 1,073,741,823 (the range of lock ID numbers permitted for our use by Oracle). In this example, I ve chosen a hash table of size 1,024, meaning we will hash our primary keys into one of 1,024 different lock IDs. Then we will use DBMS_LOCK.REQUEST to allocate an exclusive lock based on that ID. Only one session at a time will be able to do that, so if someone else tries to insert a record into our table with the same primary key, that person s lock request will fail (and the error resource busy will be raised):
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Note To successfully compile this trigger, execute permission on DBMS_LOCK must be granted directly to your
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