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Transaction Isolation Levels
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The ANSI/ISO SQL standard defines four levels of transaction isolation, with different possible outcomes for the same transaction scenario. That is, the same work performed in the same fashion with the same inputs may result in different answers, depending on your isolation level. These isolation levels are defined in terms of three phenomena that are either permitted or not at a given isolation level:
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CHAPTER 7 CONCURRENCY AND MULTI-VERSIONING
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Dirty read: The meaning of this term is as bad as it sounds. You are permitted to read uncommitted, or dirty, data. You would achieve this effect by just opening an OS file that someone else is writing and reading whatever data happens to be there. Data integrity is compromised, foreign keys are violated, and unique constraints are ignored. Non-repeatable read: This simply means that if you read a row at time T1 and attempt to reread that row at time T2, the row may have changed, it may have disappeared, it may have been updated, and so on. Phantom read: This means that if you execute a query at time T1 and re-execute it at time T2, additional rows may have been added to the database, which will affect your results. This differs from the non-repeatable read in that with a phantom read, data you already read has not been changed, but rather that more data satisfies your query criteria than before.
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Note The ANSI/ISO SQL standard defines transaction-level characteristics, not just individual statement-bystatement level characteristics. In the following pages, we ll examine transaction-level isolation, not just statement-level isolation.
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The SQL isolation levels are defined based on whether or not they allow each of the preceding phenomena. I find it interesting to note that the SQL standard does not impose a specific locking scheme or mandate particular behaviors, but rather describes these isolation levels in terms of these phenomena, allowing for many different locking/concurrency mechanisms to exist (see Table 7-1). Table 7-1. ANSI Isolation Levels
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READ UNCOMMITTED READ COMMITTED REPEATABLE READ SERIALIZABLE
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Permitted ----
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Non-Repeatable Read
Permitted Permitted ---
Phantom Read
Permitted Permitted Permitted --
Oracle explicitly supports the READ COMMITTED and SERIALIZABLE isolation levels as they are defined in the standard. However, this doesn t tell the whole story. The SQL standard was attempting to set up isolation levels that would permit various degrees of consistency for queries performed in each level. REPEATABLE READ is the isolation level that the SQL standard claims will guarantee a read-consistent result from a query. In their definition, READ COMMITTED does not give you consistent results, and READ UNCOMMITTED is the level to use to get non-blocking reads. However, in Oracle, READ COMMITTED has all of the attributes required to achieve read-consistent queries. In many other databases, READ COMMITTED queries can and will return answers that never existed in the database at any point in time. Moreover, Oracle also supports the spirit of READ UNCOMMITTED. The goal of providing a dirty read is to supply a non-blocking read, whereby queries are not blocked by, and do not block, updates of the same data. However, Oracle does not need dirty reads to achieve this goal, nor does it support them. Dirty reads are an implementation other databases must use in order to provide non-blocking reads.
CHAPTER 7 CONCURRENCY AND MULTI-VERSIONING
In addition to the four defined SQL isolation levels, Oracle provides another level, namely READ ONLY. A READ ONLY transaction is equivalent to a REPEATABLE READ or SERIALIZABLE transaction that can t perform any modifications in SQL. A transaction using a READ ONLY isolation level only sees those changes that were committed at the time the transaction began, but inserts, updates, and deletes are not permitted in this mode (other sessions may update data, but not the READ ONLY transaction). Using this mode, you can achieve REPEATABLE READ and SERIALIZABLE levels of isolation. Let s now move on to discuss exactly how multi-versioning and read consistency fit into the isolation scheme and how databases that do not support multi-versioning achieve the same results. This information is instructive for anyone who has used another database and believes she understands how the isolation levels must work. It is also interesting to see how a standard that was supposed to remove the differences between the databases, ANSI/ISO SQL, actually allows for them. The standard, while very detailed, can be implemented in very different ways.
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