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CHAPTER 1 DEVELOPING SUCCESSFUL ORACLE APPLICATIONS
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1 row created. ops$tkyte%ORA11GR2> commit; Commit complete. The pw table looks like a pretty important table, but remember, users do not know it exists. However, they do have access to the INJ routine: ops$tkyte%ORA11GR2> grant execute on inj to scott; Grant succeeded. So the evil developer/user, can simply execute: scott%ORA11GR2> alter session set 2 nls_date_format = '"''union select tname,0,null from tab--"'; Session altered. scott%ORA11GR2> exec ops$tkyte.inj( sysdate ) select * from all_users where created = ''union select tname,0,null from tab--' USER_PW..... PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Now, that NLS_DATE_FORMAT is interesting most people don t even know you can include character string literals with the NLS_DATE_FORMAT. (Heck, many people don t even know you can change the date format like that even without this trick. ) What the malicious user did here was to trick your code into querying a table you did not intend him to query using your set of privileges. The TAB dictionary view limits its view to the set of tables the current schema can see. When users run the procedure, the current schema used for authorization is the owner of that procedure (you, in short, not them). They can now see what tables reside in that schema. They see that table USER_PW and say hmmm, sounds interesting. So, they try to access that table: scott%ORA11GR2> select * from ops$tkyte.user_pw; select * from ops$tkyte.user_pw * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist The malicious user can t access the table directly; he lacks the SELECT privilege on the table. Not to worry, however, there is another way. The user wants to know about the columns in the table. Here s one way to find out more about the table s structure: scott%ORA11GR2> alter session set 2 nls_date_format = '"''union select tname||cname,0,null from col--"'; Session altered. scott%ORA11GR2> exec ops$tkyte.inj( sysdate ) select * from all_users where created = ''union select
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CHAPTER 1 DEVELOPING SUCCESSFUL ORACLE APPLICATIONS
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tname||cname,0,null from col--' USER_PWPW..... USER_PWUNAME..... There we go, we know the column names. Now that we know the table names and the column names of tables in that schema, we can change the NLS_DATE_FORMAT one more time to query that table not the dictionary tables. So the malicious user can next do the following: scott%ORA11GR2> alter session set 2 nls_date_format = '"''union select uname,0,null from user_pw--"'; Session altered. scott%ORA11GR2> exec ops$tkyte.inj( sysdate ) select * from all_users where created = ''union select uname,0,null from user_pw--' TKYTE..... PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. scott%ORA11GR2> alter session set 2 nls_date_format = '"''union select pw,0,null from user_pw--"'; Session altered. scott%ORA11GR2> exec ops$tkyte.inj( sysdate ) select * from all_users where created = ''union select pw,0,null from user_pw--' TOP SECRET..... PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. And there we go that evil developer/user now has your sensitive username and password information. How could you have protected yourself By using bind variables. For example: ops$tkyte%ORA11GR2> create or replace procedure NOT_inj( p_date in date ) 2 as 3 l_rec all_users%rowtype; 4 c sys_refcursor; 5 l_query long; 6 begin 7 l_query := ' 8 select * 9 from all_users 10 where created = :x'; 11 12 dbms_output.put_line( l_query ); 13 open c for l_query USING P_DATE; 14 15 for i in 1 .. 5
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loop fetch c into l_rec; exit when c%notfound; dbms_output.put_line( l_rec.username || '.....' ); end loop; close c; end; /
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Procedure created. ops$tkyte%ORA11GR2> ops$tkyte%ORA11GR2> exec NOT_inj(sysdate) select * from all_users where created = :x PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. It is a plain and simple fact that if you use bind variables you can t be subject to SQL injection. If you do not use bind variables, you have to meticulously inspect every single line of code and think like an evil genius (one who knows everything about Oracle, every single thing) and see if there is a way to attack that code. I don t know about you, but if I could be sure that 99.9999 percent of my code was not subject to SQL injection and only had to worry about the remaining 0.0001 percent (that couldn t use a bind variable for whatever reason), I d sleep much better at night than if I had to worry about 100 percent of my code being subject to SQL injection. In any case, on the particular project I began describing at the beginning of this section, rewriting the existing code to use bind variables was the only possible course of action. The resulting code ran orders of magnitude faster and increased many times the number of simultaneous users that the system could support. And the code was more secure the entire codebase did not need to be reviewed for SQL injection issues. However, that security came at a high price in terms of time and effort, because my client had to code the system and then code it again. It is not that using bind variables is hard, or errorprone, it s just that they did not use them initially and thus were forced to go back and revisit virtually all of the code and change it. My client would not have paid this price if the developers had understood that it was vital to use bind variables in their application from day one.
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