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I then ran the following SQL*Plus script in an interactive session. The table T had been created beforehand (above) with about 70,000 rows in it. connect / set echo on declare l_first_time boolean default true; begin for x in ( select * from t order by 1, 2, 3, 4 ) loop if ( l_first_time ) then insert into sess_stats ( name, value, active ) select name, value, (select count(*) from v$session where status = 'ACTIVE' and username is not null) from ( select a.name, b.value from v$statname a, v$sesstat b where a.statistic# = b.statistic# and b.sid = (select sid from v$mystat where rownum=1) and (a.name like '%ga %' or a.name like '%direct temp%') union all select 'total: ' || a.name, sum(b.value) from v$statname a, v$sesstat b, v$session c where a.statistic# = b.statistic# and (a.name like '%ga %' or a.name like '%direct temp%') and b.sid = c.sid and c.username is not null group by 'total: ' || a.name ); l_first_time := false; end if; end loop; end; / commit; This script sorts the big table T using PGA automatic memory management. Then, for that session, it captures all of the PGA/UGA memory settings as well as sort-to-disk activity. In addition, the UNION ALL adds system-level metrics about the same (total PGA memory, total UGA memory and so on). I ran that script against a database started with the following initialization settings: *.compatible='11.2.0.0.0' *.control_files='/home/ora11gr2/app/ora11gr2/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl','/home/ora11gr2/app /ora11gr2/flash_recovery_area/orcl/control02.ctl' *.db_block_size=8192 *.db_name='orcl'
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*.db_recovery_file_dest='/home/ora11gr2/app/ora11gr2/flash_recovery_area' *.db_recovery_file_dest_size=4039114752 *.diagnostic_dest='/home/ora11gr2/app/ora11gr2' *.pga_aggregate_target=256m *.sga_target=256m *.open_cursors=300 *.processes=600 *.remote_login_passwordfile='EXCLUSIVE' *.resource_limit=TRUE *.undo_tablespace='UNDOTBS1' These settings show I was using automatic PGA memory management with a PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET of 256MB, meaning I wanted Oracle to use up to about 256MB of PGA memory for sorting. I set up another script to be run in other sessions to generate a large sorting load on the machine. This script loops and uses a built-in package, DBMS_ALERT, to see if it should continue processing. If it should, it runs the same big query, sorting the entire T table. When the simulation finished, a session could signal all of the sorting processes, the load generators, to "stop" and exit. Here s the script used to perform the sort: declare l_msg long; l_status number; begin dbms_alert.register( 'WAITING' ); for i in 1 .. 999999 loop dbms_application_info.set_client_info( i ); dbms_alert.waitone( 'WAITING', l_msg, l_status, 0 ); exit when l_status = 0; for x in ( select * from t order by 1, 2, 3, 4 ) loop null; end loop; end loop; end; / Exit and here s the script to stop these processes from running: begin dbms_alert.signal( 'WAITING', '' ); commit; end; To observe the differing amounts of RAM allocated to the session I was measuring, I initially ran the SELECT in isolation as the only session. I captured the statistics and saved them into the SESS_STATS table, along with the count of active sessions. Then I added 25 sessions to the system (i.e., I ran the preceding benchmark script with the for i in 1 .. 999999 loop in 25 new sessions). I waited a short period of time one minute for the system to adjust to this new load and then I created a new session and ran the single sort query from above, capturing of the metrics the first time through the loop. I did this repeatedly, for up to 500 concurrent users. It should be noted that I asked the database instance to do an impossible thing here. As mentioned previously, based on the first time we ran watch_stat.sql, each connection to Oracle before even
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doing a single sort consumed a little more than .5MB of RAM. At 500 users, we would be very close to the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET setting just by having them all logged in, let alone actually doing any work! This drives home the point that the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET is just that: a target, not a directive. We can and will exceed this value for various reasons. Now we are ready to report on the finding; for reasons of space, we ll stop the output at 250 users since the data starts to get quite repetitive: ops$tkyte%ORA11GR2> column active format 999 ops$tkyte%ORA11GR2> column pga format 999.9 ops$tkyte%ORA11GR2> column "tot PGA" format 999.9 ops$tkyte%ORA11GR2> column pga_diff format 999.99 ops$tkyte%ORA11GR2> column "temp write" format 9,999 ops$tkyte%ORA11GR2> column "tot writes temp" format 99,999,999 ops$tkyte%ORA11GR2> column writes_diff format 9,999,999 ops$tkyte%ORA11GR2> select active, 2 pga, 3 "tot PGA", 4 "tot PGA"-lag( "tot PGA" ) over (order by active) pga_diff, 5 "temp write", 6 "tot writes temp", 7 "tot writes temp"-lag( "tot writes temp" ) over (order by active) writes_diff 8 from ( 9 select * 10 from ( 11 select active, 12 name, 13 case when name like '%ga mem%' then round(value/1024/1024,1) else value end val 14 from sess_stats 15 where active < 275 16 ) 17 pivot ( max(val) for name in ( 18 'session pga memory' as "PGA", 19 'total: session pga memory' as "tot PGA", 20 'physical writes direct temporary tablespace' as "temp write", 21 'total: physical writes direct temporary tablespace' as "tot writes temp" 22 ) ) 23 ) 24 order by active 25 / ACTIVE PGA tot PGA PGA_DIFF temp write tot writes temp WRITES_DIFF ------ ------ ------- -------- ---------- --------------- ----------0 2.0 6.2 0 6,658 1 11.4 15.6 9.40 0 6,658 0 26 9.7 103.0 87.40 0 115,179 108,521 51 1.2 164.3 61.30 1,055 345,960 230,781 76 2.8 196.2 31.90 1,057 588,922 242,962 102 1.2 177.8 -18.40 1,715 727,835 138,913 127 1.1 171.3 -6.50 3,699 1,206,949 479,114 151 1.0 191.9 20.60 5,724 1,864,445 657,496 177 1.0 216.9 25.00 6,677 2,736,554 872,109 201 1.0 255.7 38.80 6,686 3,994,030 1,257,476 227 1.0 286.9 31.20 6,683 5,723,449 1,729,419 253 1.0 304.0 17.10 6,669 7,992,572 2,269,123 10 rows selected.
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