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where job like '%'||p_criterion||'%'; end if; end; /
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Procedure created. The procedure, demo_refcursor, demonstrates how the same ref cursor variable can be dynamically associated with a different cursor based on the user input. The procedure takes a query selector and a criterion, and returns a ref cursor in its third parameter, which is declared using the built-in PL/SQL data type sys_refcursor. In lines 4 through 6, we use the %type construct to declare variables whose types are anchored to the emp table column types. Based on the value of the query selector, the procedure opens and returns a different cursor, and uses the passed criterion in the query s where clause. We can now fetch these cursors as ResultSet objects using the CallableStatement interface in JDBC and print them out. The following DemoRefCursor class does this: /** This program simply prints out a ref cursor, which points to a different query based on passed criteria * COMPATIBLITY NOTE: * runs successfully against 9.2.0.1.0 and 10.1.0.2.0 */ import java.sql.SQLException; import java.sql.ResultSet; import java.sql.Connection; import java.sql.CallableStatement; import oracle.jdbc.OracleTypes; import book.util.JDBCUtil; class DemoRefCursor { public static void main(String args[]) throws Exception { Connection conn = null; CallableStatement cstmt = null; ResultSet rset = null; The first command-line parameter to the class is the database name, the second parameter is the criterion (which becomes the first parameter of the procedure demo_refcursor), and the third parameter is the bind value to the dynamically generated ref cursor s query (which becomes the second parameter to the procedure demo_refcursor). We simply execute the procedure demo_refcursor in the following code, passing the appropriate parameters: try { // get connection - auto commit is off conn = (Connection) JDBCUtil. getConnection("scott", "tiger", args[0]); String stmtString = "{call demo_refcursor( , , ) }"; cstmt = conn.prepareCall( stmtString ); cstmt.setString( 1, args[1] ); // criterion
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cstmt.setString( 2, args[2] ); // bind value cstmt.registerOutParameter( 3, OracleTypes.CURSOR ); // returned cursor cstmt.execute(); rset = (ResultSet) cstmt.getObject( 3 ); while( rset.next() ) { System.out.println( rset.getInt( 1 ) + ", " + rset.getString( 2 ) + ", " + rset.getString( 3 ) ); } } finally { // release resources associated with JDBC in the finally clause. JDBCUtil.close( rset ); JDBCUtil.close( cstmt ); JDBCUtil.close( conn ); } } } We first invoke the program with the criterion ename and the bind value SCOTT to get the following output: B:\>java DemoRefCursor ora10g ename SCOTT URL:jdbc:oracle:thin:@(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(PORT=1521) (HOST=rmenon-lap))(CONNECT_DATA=(SID=ora10g))) 7788, SCOTT, ANALYST Next, we invoke the program with the criterion job and the bind value CLERK to get the following output: B:\>java DemoRefCursor ora10g job CLERK URL:jdbc:oracle:thin:@(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(PORT=1521) (HOST=rmenon-lap))(CONNECT_DATA=(SID=ora10g))) 7369, SMITH, CLERK 7876, ADAMS, CLERK 7900, JAMES, CLERK 7934, MILLER, CLERK The preceding program demonstrates that a ref cursor can be dynamically made to point to a different query at runtime. A ref cursor is typically used to return a query s result to client programs such as those written using JDBC/ODBC, Pro*C/Oracle Forms, and so on (as just demonstrated). This is a very powerful feature, because it allows the client and the server to transparently share the same result set. The ref cursor can be declared on the client (e.g., the ResultSet variable in our program, DemoRefCursor), it can be opened on the server, and the results can be fetched from the client. The next few sections assume that you know the difference between a hard parse and a soft parse of a DML statement. If you re not familiar with these concepts, please review the section Overview of How Oracle Processes SQL Statements (DML) of 5.
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As you know by now, each time an application opens a cursor, Oracle hard-parses the statement on the first encounter (or if the statement is no longer in the shared pool), and then soft-parses it on subsequent encounters. In this section, we will look at how a statement is parsed within a loop. To see the inner workings of our programs in this chapter, we will set SQL trace from Java by executing the method JDBCUtil.startTrace(). The method startTrace() of the JDBCUtil class is as follows: /** * starts SQL trace for a JDBC program. The SQL trace is * automatically disabled when the program ends */ public static void startTrace ( Connection connection ) throws SQLException { String setTimedStatisticsStmt = "alter session set timed_statistics=true"; String setTraceStmt = "alter session set events '10046 trace name context forever, level 12'"; Statement stmt = null; try { stmt = connection.createStatement(); stmt.execute( setTimedStatisticsStmt ); stmt.execute( setTraceStmt ); } finally { stmt.close(); } } As you can see, the method simply sets the timed statistics on and alters the session to enable SQL tracing. Subsequently, we will use tkprof to look at the trace file data. The concept of soft and hard parses in a loop is illustrated by the following program, DemoParse, with interspersed explanatory comments: import java.sql.SQLException; import java.sql.ResultSet; import java.sql.Connection; import java.sql.PreparedStatement; import oracle.jdbc.OracleTypes; import book.util.JDBCUtil; class DemoParse { public static void main(String args[]) throws Exception { Connection conn = null; PreparedStatement pstmt = null;
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