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CHAPTER 17 SELECTED PL/SQL TECHNIQUES
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To compare the two utilities, we use the runstats utility as usual. We first populate a collection variable with values to be populated into tables t4 and t5, respectively: benchmark@ORA10G> declare 2 l_object_name_list object_name_list; 3 l_object_id_list object_id_list; 4 begin 5 select object_name, object_id 6 bulk collect into l_object_name_list, l_object_id_list 7 from all_objects 8 where rownum <= 35000; 9 We then execute the runstats utility and invoke the two procedures to compare them: 10 begin 11 runstats_pkg.rs_start; 12 end; 13 begin 14 no_bulk_bind( l_object_name_list, l_object_id_list ); 15 end; 16 begin 17 runstats_pkg.rs_middle; 18 end; 19 begin 20 bulk_bind( l_object_name_list, l_object_id_list ); 21 end; 22 begin 23 runstats_pkg.rs_stop(10); 24 end; 25 end; 26 / Run1 ran in 190 hsecs Run2 ran in 11 hsecs run 1 ran in 1727.27% of the time Name Run1 LATCH.loader state object free 12 <-results trimmed to conserve space --> STAT...redo size 9,559,460 Run2 0 1,670,356 Diff -12 -7,889,104
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Run1 latches total versus runs -- difference and pct Run1 Run2 Diff Pct 375,873 16,893 -358,980 2,225.02% PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
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As you can see, the performance of our inserts has increased tremendously. The procedure without the bulk bind took 17 times longer and also consumed 22 times more resources than the procedure with the bulk bind! A limitation of bulk bind as of Oracle 10g Release 1 is that it does not work with an array of objects. For example, in the preceding scenario, if we wanted to use an array of a single object with object_name and object_id as its attributes, the bulk bind will not work: benchmark@ORA10G> create or replace type object_data as object 2 ( 3 object_name varchar2(30), 4 object_id number 5 ) 6 / Type created. benchmark@ORA10G> create or replace type object_data_list as table of object_data; 2 / Type created. benchmark@ORA10G> declare 2 l_object_data_list object_data_list; 3 begin 4 select object_data( object_name, object_id ) 5 bulk collect into l_object_data_list 6 from all_objects 7 where rownum <= 5; 8 forall i in 1..l_object_data_list.count 9 insert into t5( object_name, object_id) values( l_object_data_list(i).object_name, l_object_data_list(i).object_id); 10 end; 11 / insert into t5( object_name, object_id) values( l_object_data_list(i).object_name, l_object_data_list(i).object_id); * ERROR at line 9: ORA-06550: line 9, column 53: PLS-00436: implementation restriction: cannot reference fields of BULK In-BIND table of records Handling Errors in Bulk Binding Since during bulk bind operations we process many rows at a time, if one or more rows result in an error, the entire operation is rolled back, but the exception information raised does not tell us which rows were at fault. Consider the following table, t6, in which we cannot insert null values in column x. We also have a check constraint such that only values between 1 and 10 (including 10) can be inserted:
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CHAPTER 17 SELECTED PL/SQL TECHNIQUES
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benchmark@ORA10G> create table t6( x number primary key constraint check_nonnegative_lt_10 check( x > 0 and x <= 10 )) ; Table created. We then declare a PL/SQL array of numbers and store ten values in it, three of which (null, -5, and 11) are invalid if inserted into t6. When we insert the array values into table t6, we get a single array message for the first erroneous value (null) in the array: benchmark@ORA10G> declare 2 type number_table is table of number; 3 l_number_table number_table; 4 begin 5 l_number_table := number_table( 1, 2, 3, null, -5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11); 6 forall i in 1..l_number_table.count 7 insert into t6( x ) values ( l_number_table(i) ); 8 end; 9 / declare * ERROR at line 1: ORA-01400: cannot insert NULL into ("BENCHMARK"."T6"."X") ORA-06512: at line 6 Also, none of the records gets inserted, since the entire operation is rolled back, as shown by the following query: benchmark@ORA10G> select * from t6; no rows selected When you are inserting data in bulk, your requirement may be to successfully insert good records while getting a list of bad records that you can reinsert after incorporating the necessary corrections. Starting with 9i, there is a way to save the exceptions raised during a bulk bind operation and print them out later. This is shown in the following code snippet (the code should work the same in both 10g and 9i): benchmark@ORA10G> declare 2 type number_table is table of number; 3 l_number_table number_table; 4 begin 5 l_number_table := number_table( 1, 2, 3, null, -5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11); 6 begin 7 forall i in 1..l_number_table.count save exceptions 8 insert into t6( x ) values ( l_number_table(i) ); 9 exception 10 when others then 11 dbms_output.put_line( 'number of exceptions raised: ' || sql%bulk_exceptions.count ); 12 for i in 1..sql%bulk_exceptions.count loop 13 dbms_output.put_line( 'row number : ' ||
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