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CHAPTER 17 SELECTED PL/SQL TECHNIQUES
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We now connect as the user invoker and try to create a procedure, invoker_mode_proc, that prints the number of rows in table t1. The procedure is created in invoker rights mode by specifying the keyword authid current_user as shown highlighted in the following code (authid definer, which is the default, specifies that the procedure be created in definer rights mode): sys@ORA10G> conn invoker/invoker Connected. invoker@ORA10G> create or replace procedure invoker_mode_proc 2 authid current_user 3 is 4 l_count number; 5 begin 6 select count(*) 7 into l_count 8 from t1; 9 dbms_output.put_line( 'Count is : ' || l_count ); 10 end; 11 / Warning: Procedure created with compilation errors. invoker@ORA10G> show errors; Errors for PROCEDURE INVOKER_MODE_PROC: 6/3 8/8 PL/SQL: SQL Statement ignored PL/SQL: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist
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The procedure fails to compile again. This is because during compilation time, even for a procedure created with invoker rights, roles are disabled. To compile the preceding procedure, we need to use dynamic SQL as follows: invoker@ORA10G> create or replace procedure invoker_mode_proc 2 authid current_user 3 is 4 l_count number; 5 begin 6 execute immediate 'select count(*) from t1' into l_count; 7 dbms_output.put_line( 'Count is : ' || l_count ); 8 end; 9 / Procedure created.
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When this code is executed, we get the correct answer. This is because, during execution, the roles were enabled, as we had created the procedure with invoker rights. Hence, the procedure runs successfully: invoker@ORA10G> exec invoker_mode_proc Count is : 5 Note that if you use dynamic SQL with the definer rights procedure, you ll be able to compile the code, but you ll get a runtime error if you don t have direct privileges on the accessed object. To demonstrate this, let s connect as sys and revoke the direct select privilege on t1 from the user definer: sys@ORA10G> revoke select on t1 from definer; Revoke succeeded. If we now connect back as the user definer and try to compile the procedure definer_mode_proc, which now uses dynamic SQL, the compilation will work: sys@ORA10G> conn definer/definer Connected. definer@ORA10G definer@ORA10G> create or replace procedure definer_mode_proc 2 is 3 l_count number; 4 begin 5 execute immediate 'select count(*) from t1' into l_count; 6 dbms_output.put_line( 'Count is : ' || l_count ); 7 end; 8 / Procedure created. However, when we execute the procedure, since roles are disabled, we will get an error: definer@ORA10G> execute definer_mode_proc BEGIN definer_mode_proc; END; * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist ORA-06512: at "DEFINER.DEFINER_MODE_PROC", line 5 ORA-06512: at line 1
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This example demonstrates how invoker rights procedures differ from definer rights procedures in terms of roles being enabled or disabled during program execution. Let s look at another example to see how these two modes differ in terms of object resolution. Say we want to write a generic routine that will return the number of rows of a given table or view. We do not want to create this procedure in multiple schemas we want to create it once and let others share the same code. For such generic code, it is a good idea to create a separate schema. We create one called utils as follows: sys@ORA10G> create user utils identified by utils; User created. sys@ORA10G> grant create session, 2 create procedure, 3 create public synonym, 4 drop public synonym 5 to utils; Grant succeeded. We now connect as utils and create a function, count_rows(), that takes a table name as a parameter and uses dynamic SQL to return the number of rows: utils@ORA10G> create or replace function count_rows( p_table_name in varchar2 ) 2 return number 3 is 4 l_count number; 5 begin 6 execute immediate 'select count(*) from ' || p_table_name into l_count; 7 return l_count; 8 end; 9 / Function created. Since we want this function to be used by other schemas, we create a public synonym and also grant the execute privilege on this function to public: utils@ORA10G> grant execute on count_rows to public; Grant succeeded. utils@ORA10G> create public synonym count_rows for count_rows; Synonym created.
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