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{ public void Method1() { } } public class BuilderBinder { A object1; B object2; public BuilderBinder() { object1 = new A(); object2 = new B(); object1.methodReference = new SimpleDelegate(object2.Method1); } public void TestSystem() { object1.MakeIndirectCall(); } } }
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Some explanations are in order. On line 4, the code declares a reference-to-method type called SimpleDelegate. C# uses the term delegate to represent a reference-to-method type. Other languages have different constructs. For example, Java uses the class java.lang.reflect.Method to support method references. C# delegates are types that you can use to declare method pointers. The pointer must be initialized before being used; otherwise, it will point to nothing. The code in the preceding listing uses a separate class called BuilderBinder to create instances of A and B. The BuilderBinder also initializes object1.methodReference to point to object2.Method1. In the listing, the delegate is declared outside of all classes, at the namespace level. C# also allows delegates to be declared inside a class, without affecting the signature represented by the delegate. It is worth reiterating the fact that method references work at the object level, not the class level. Regarding the example, it would be incorrect to say that A.methodReference is initialized to point at B.Method1, because that would imply that class A has some form of coupling to class B, which is not the case. Getting back to Listing 1-7, object1 uses the methodReference field to call object2.Method1 directly, bypassing the B interface. The variable object1.methodReference doesn t point to an object, but to a method within an object. The method reference introduces signature coupling between object1 and object2, but not between A and B. At build time, there is no relationship whatsoever between A and B, and therefore no coupling. At run time, the BuilderBinder class initializes the method reference on line 37. Later, when object1 calls through methodReference, it doesn t know which object or method is going to be at the other end of the methodReference link. As long as the target method s signature matches the signature expected, the call will succeed, at least at the wire level. The fact that B.Method1 happens to be at the other end of object1.methodReference is completely unknown to class A at compile time, and dependent on the way object1.methodReference was initialized at run time. When the signature of the method called is the same as the signature expected, then the callee s method is signature-compatible with the caller s method reference. Signature-compatibility of a
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target method obviously doesn t guarantee that the method will produce the expected results. Whether the right method is being called, in terms of the system s requirements, is an entirely different story. For the moment, all you care about is whether the method accessed through a method reference is signature-compatible with the reference itself. You can consider signature coupling similar in some ways to the object-level coupling described by Hitz.8 Signature coupling applies to instances (e.g., objects), not types (e.g., classes). At run time, you could set object1.methodReference to point to any signature-compatible method. That method could be practically anywhere: in object1, in a different instance of A, or in an instance of a different class. The method could be in the same component as the caller, in a different component, or in a different thread. Moreover, at run time you can change repeatedly the method that object1.methodReference points to. However, the reference might go to one object on the first call and to a different object on the next call. Many methods have a signature with a parameter list and/or a return value. If the signature uses only built-in types, then the caller and callee incur platform type coupling to those built-in types. Figure 1-20 shows the platform coupling the String parameter causes in the method s signature.
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object2: B object1: A methodReference Method1(System.String)
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