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CHAPTER 10 FUNCTIONAL ROLES
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Example 1: Using a Single LifecycleCoordinator
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A single LifecycleCoordinator can manage applications that aren t too complicated. For this first example, I ll assume a system has a simple startup process with no user interface. Once the startup is complete, the user interface is made visible. When the user closes the application, the system switches to the shutdown state, during which user commands are ignored and the user interface is torn down. Figure 10-20 shows the state machine diagram of the system.
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User Runs App
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Starting Up
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App Initialized
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User Closes App
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Shutting Down
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Figure 10-20. The LifecycleCoordinator state machine diagram Figure 10-21 shows the system s class diagram.
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LifecycleCoordinator +Main() +Run()
-builderBinder
BuilderBinder +Build() +Bind()
-formMain
FormMain
Figure 10-21. The system s class diagram Listing 10-11 and Listing 10-12 show C# and VB .NET implementations. I omitted the code for FormMain, since the class is an arbitrary form with the application s user interface. Listing 10-11. A C# Implementation of a Simple LifecycleCoordinator System public class LifecycleCoordinator { // The main entry point for the application [STAThread] static void Main() { LifecycleCoordinator coordinator = new LifecycleCoordinator(); coordinator.Run(); // the app exits when this call completes } enum LifecycleState {StartingUp, Running, ShuttingDown}; LifecycleState state; BuilderBinder builderBinder = BuilderBinder.Singleton; public void Run() { state = LifecycleState.StartingUp; // build and bind all the top-level objects builderBinder.Build(); builderBinder.Bind();
CHAPTER 10 FUNCTIONAL ROLES
// listen for app closing events builderBinder.formMain.Closing += new CancelEventHandler(formMain_Closing); // run the system state = LifecycleState.Running; Application.Run(builderBinder.formMain); } private void formMain_Closing(object sender, System.ComponentModel.CancelEventArgs e) { // user is closing the app's main form state = LifecycleState.ShuttingDown; // disable the user interface during shutdown builderBinder.formMain.Visible = false; } public void { // ignore if (state if (state HandleWorkerEvent() worker events unless in the Running state == LifecycleState.StartingUp) return; == LifecycleState.ShuttingDown) return;
// handle the event... } }
public class BuilderBinder { static BuilderBinder singleton; static public BuilderBinder Singleton { get { if (singleton == null) singleton = new BuilderBinder(); return singleton; } } public FormMain formMain; // private constructor, to force access through Singleton property private BuilderBinder() { } public void Build() { // create all the top-level objects formMain = new FormMain(); }
CHAPTER 10 FUNCTIONAL ROLES
public void Bind() { // wire all the top-level objects } } Listing 10-12. A VB .NET Implementation of a Simple LifecycleCoordinator System Public Class LifecycleCoordinator ' the application's main entry point Shared Sub Main() Dim coordinator As New LifecycleCoordinator coordinator.Run() ' the app exits when this call completes End Sub Enum LifecycleState StartingUp Running ShuttingDown End Enum Private state As LifecycleState Private builderBinder As BuilderBinder = BuilderBinder.Singleton Public Sub Run() state = LifecycleState.StartingUp ' build and bind all the top-level objects builderBinder.Build() builderBinder.Bind() ' listen for app closing events AddHandler builderBinder._formMain.Closing, AddressOf formMain_Closing ' run the system state = LifecycleState.Running Application.Run(builderBinder._formMain) End Sub Private Sub formMain_Closing(ByVal sender As Object, _ ByVal e As System.ComponentModel.CancelEventArgs) ' user is closing the app's main form state = LifecycleState.ShuttingDown ' disable the user interface during shutdown builderBinder._formMain.Visible = False End Sub Public Sub ' ignore If state If state HandleWorkerEvent() worker events unless in the Running state = LifecycleState.StartingUp Then Return = LifecycleState.ShuttingDown Then Return
CHAPTER 10 FUNCTIONAL ROLES
' handle the event... End Sub End Class
Public Class BuilderBinder Private Shared _singleton As BuilderBinder Public Shared ReadOnly Property Singleton() As BuilderBinder Get If _singleton Is Nothing Then _singleton = New BuilderBinder End If Return _singleton End Get End Property Public _formMain As FormMain ' private constructor, to force access through Singleton property Private Sub New() End Sub Public Sub Build() ' create all the top-level objects _formMain = New FormMain End Sub Public Sub Bind() ' wire all the top-level objects End Sub End Class The main entry point of the application is the method LifecyleCoordinator.Main. When this method returns, the operating system unloads the application. The Main method just creates an instance of the Coordinator and calls the Run method. The Coordinator uses a BuilderBinder, which is implemented as a singleton class, to create and bind all the system s important parts. More details on builders and binders appear in later sections of this chapter. The LifecycleCoordinator class doesn t really do much except set the life-cycle state and ensure that the system doesn t attempt to do things that are disallowed in the current state. For example, when the user tries to close the app s main form, the Coordinator hides the form immediately, effectively barring the user from further interactions with the UI. Shutting the application down might take a long time, and you don t want the user to enter any more commands once the shutdown phase has begun.
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