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WCF s Solution to Distributed Technology Soup
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WCF solves the distributed technology soup problem by incorporating the best of each Big Four technology into one programming model. For developers, this eases the burden of having to remember four extremely different models. It also simplifies the task of switching midstream to another distributed technique. In terms of a programming model, WCF actually supports three levels of programming : API, declarative attributes, and configuration. The extensive WCF API exposes all of its functionality including low-level plumbing and extensibility points. Although the API is powerful, WCF also defines many attributes that are much simpler to use and that support most scenarios. Finally, WCF s configuration support enables you modify many settings without even touching your source code. Beyond providing a simple programming mode, WCF s attribute-based approach also enables you to expose a component on the wire without deriving from a special base class. In contrast, .NET Remoting and Enterprise Services require that you derive your remote object from MarshalByRefObject and ServicedComponent, respectively. Because .NET allows only one base class, this makes it difficult to incorporate your own custom base class.
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Web Services.
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CHAPTER 9 WINDOWS COMMUNICATION FOUNDATION
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Table 9-1. Summary of the Big Four Distributed Technologies
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Technology
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Web Services
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Characteristics
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RPC style1 XSD type fidelity Schema/WSDL integration
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Advantages
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Great for interoperability Resilient
Disadvantages
Issues with performance and immature specifications in the WS-* space. Fragile No built-in services such as hosting or security Poor interop COM-isms leak out and present COM hassles Poor interop Poorly understood
Remoting
RPC style CLR type fidelity Code-based integration
Lean and mean
Enterprise Services
RPC style Code integration Declarative services: transactions, pooling concurrency Message style Schema or code integration Robust messaging support (guaranteed deliver, transacted messaged, etc.)
Proven technology Very fast Provides many services
MSMQ
Great when robust messaging is required
1. By this, we re referring to the .NET tools that assume every developer wants an RPC fa ade over the SOAP messages.
Problem: Current Focus on Distributed Objects and RPC
Currently, most of the Big Four provide a distributed object programming model. In other words, they try to apply the principles of object orientation to the world of distributed applications. The problem, unfortunately, is that while object orientation is extremely successful in many types of applications, it does not translate well to distributed applications. In fact, to achieve acceptable performance and scalability out of a distributed object, you must violate some core principles of object orientation. Examples of this include creating stateless objects (an oxymoron by many object standards) and exposing a chunky interface rather than the chatty interface recommended by object orientation. Furthermore, many distributed object technologies assume a homogeneous environment and atomic deployment both of which are exceedingly rare in the real world. Despite these issues, .NET Remoting and Enterprise Services rely heavily on the object metaphor. The same can also be said for .NET Web Services in that the Web Service code generated by Visual Studio .NET implements a logical RPC interface on top of a document-based wire format. This leaves MSMQ as the only Big Four technology that eschews the distributed object mentality in favor of a pure messaging approach.2
WCF s Solution to the Distributed Object/RPC Focus
In light of the limitations of a distributed object mindset, the industry is beginning to adopt a new approach called service orientation (SO). In the next section, we provide a detailed
2. Unless you are one of the few who has forged a contract-first Web Service design and implementation
CHAPTER 9 WINDOWS COMMUNICATION FOUNDATION
explanation of this approach and why it s a better fit for a distributed application. For now, simply remember this: SO addresses the unique characteristics and requirements of a distributed application in a cleaner way than distributed objects do. The problem today, however, is that most distributed technologies and tools favor the classic distributed object approach. Obviously, this makes a service-oriented approach much more difficult to implement than it should be. WCF addresses this situation by making SO a first-class citizen. Its primary focus is to provide the tools and infrastructure necessary to ease a developer s learning curve and implementation burden when applying a service-oriented solution. That said, WCF also supports the best practice use of distributed objects.
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