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Defining Service Contracts
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Defying convention, a good place to start is with the C, which actually represents service contract. A service contract defines the service operations and the input and output parameters of each operation. In fact, this notion is extremely similar to the <portType> section in WSDL today. A service contract is typically defined by applying attributes to a class or interface: using System.ServiceModel [ServiceContract] class MathService { [OperationContract] public int Add(int n1, int n2) { return n1 + n2; } [OperationContract] private int Subtract(int n1, int n2) { return n1 - n2; } } In this example, note the ServiceContract and OperationContract attributes. These attributes combine to create the service contract. The OperationContract attributes are analogous to the familiar WebMethod attribute in that each attribute defines the attached method as an exposed operation. However, notice that the Subtract method is private. In WCF, the access modifiers are orthogonal to the service contract and, therefore, have no bearing on what can or cannot be exposed outside the service. These attributes can also be applied to an interface to create the service contract. For example:
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CHAPTER 9 WINDOWS COMMUNICATION FOUNDATION
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using System.ServiceModel [ServiceContract] interface IMathService { [OperationContract] int Add(int n1, int n2); [OperationContract] int Subtract(int n1, int n2); } class MathService : IMathService { public int Add(int n1, int n2) { return n1 + n2; } public int Subtract(int n1, int n2) { return n1 - n2; } } In this example, notice how the implementing class needs no attributes; its only concern is to implement the IMathService interface. Since it s desirable to keep the contract separate from the implementation, using an interface to define the service contract is the preferred approach.
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Specifying the Address and Binding
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In addition to implementing a contract, each endpoint also contains an address and a binding. The address is essentially a URL that defines the location of the endpoint (and the service by extension) in the network. Bindings are a little more interesting. The endpoint binding defines what protocols, transport, and encoding the endpoint will use for all its communication. You can create a custom binding, but WCF provides several useful built-in bindings. Table 9-2 shows a partial list of these. Table 9-2. A Few of WCF s Standard Bindings
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Binding
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WS-I Basic Profile conformant binding that provides seamless interoperability with any other Basic Profile conformant Web Service. Use this binding to communicate with Web Services. Provides the same features as BasicProfileBinding, but also includes support for the full WSE 3.0 stack of protocols. Provides extremely fast communication between processes running on the same machine. Use to interoperate with MSMQ applications.
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WSProfileBinding NetProfileNamedPipeBinding MsmqIntegrationBinding
CHAPTER 9 WINDOWS COMMUNICATION FOUNDATION
Although you can configure the address and binding programmatically, it s much easier (not to mention more flexible) to configure these in the app.config file (or web.config file) as we show here: <configuration xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/.NetConfiguration/v2.0"> <system.serviceModel> <services> <service serviceType="IndigoServer.MathService"> <endpoint bindingSectionName="wsProfileBinding" address="http://localhost:13101/MathService" contractType="IndigoServer.MathService, IndigoServer"> </endpoint> </service> </services> </system.serviceModel> </configuration> As you can see, the <endpoint> element provides several attributes. With these, you can set the address, binding, and contract type. Remember, by definition a service can contain multiple endpoints. Here s the configuration for this scenario, where multiple endpoints are applied to one service: <configuration xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/.NetConfiguration/v2.0"> <system.serviceModel> <services> <service serviceType="IndigoServer.MathService"> <endpoint bindingSectionName="wsProfileBinding" address="http://localhost:13101/MathService" contractType="IndigoServer.IMathService, IndigoServer"> </endpoint> <endpoint bindingSectionName="basicProfileBinding" address="http://localhost:13102/MathService" contractType="IndigoServer.IMathService, IndigoServer"> </endpoint> </service> </services> </system.serviceModel> </configuration> In this example, the second endpoint configures a slightly different binding, thus enabling the service to communicate using two different protocol stacks.
CHAPTER 9 WINDOWS COMMUNICATION FOUNDATION
Hosting the Service
A WCF service can be hosted in many types of applications: Windows Service, Windows Forms, ASP.NET, and even a simple console application. Although ASP .NET will likely be the most popular host for services, for the sake of simplicity the following example demonstrates how to host a service within a simple console application. static void Main(string[] args) { using (ServiceHost<MathService> service = new ServiceHost<MathService>()) { // communication infrastructure set up on call to open service.Open(); //Stay alive to process requests Console.WriteLine("Hit [Enter] to exit"); Console.ReadLine(); } } The points of interest in this simple example are the ServiceHost constructor call and the call to Service.Open method. By constructing the generic ServiceHost class with the MathService parameter, the runtime generates a hosting environment for the MathService service. The ServicedHost.Open method establishes the communication infrastructure required by each endpoint based on its binding. Each opened ServicedHost consumes its share of resources, so it s important to close the service to release those resources. You could do this explicitly by calling the Close method on the ServiceHost, but the previous example implements a using block that implicitly closes the ServiceHost once the thread leaves the scope of the using block.
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