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Application security is often a challenging issue. Applications need to be able to authenticate the user, which means that they need to verify the user s identity. The result of authentication is not only that the application knows the identity of the user, but that the application has access to the user s role membership and possibly other information about the user collectively, I ll refer to this as the user s profile data. This profile data can be used by the application for various purposes, most notably authorization. The framework directly supports integrated security. This means that you can use objects within the framework to determine the user s Windows identity and any domain or Active Directory (AD) groups to which they belong. In some organizations, this is enough: all the users of the organization s applications are in the Windows NT domain or AD, and by having them log in to a workstation or a website using integrated security, the applications can determine the user s identity and roles (groups). In other organizations, applications are used by at least some users who are not part of the organization s NT domain or AD. They may not even be members of the organization in question. This is very often the case with web and mobile applications, but it s surprisingly common with Windows applications as well. In these cases, you can t rely on Windows integrated security for authentication and authorization. To complicate matters further, the ideal security model would provide user profile and role information not only to server-side code, but also to the code on the client. Rather than allowing the user to attempt to perform operations that will generate errors due to security at some later time, the UI should gray out the options, or not display them at all. This requires that the developer have consistent access to the user s identity and profile at all layers of the application, including the UI, Business, and Data Access layers. Remember that the layers of an application may be deployed across multiple physical tiers. Due to this fact, there must be a way of transferring the user s identity information across tier boundaries. This is often called impersonation. Implementing impersonation isn t too hard when using Windows integrated security, but it s often problematic when relying solely on, say, COM+ role-based security, because there s no easy way to make the user s COM+ role information available to the UI developer.
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CHAPTER 2 s FRAMEWORK DESIGN
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s Note In May 2002, Juval Lowy wrote an article for MSDN magazine in which he described how to create custom .NET security objects that merge NT domain or AD groups and COM+ roles so that both are available to the application.2
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The business framework will provide support for both Windows integrated security and custom authentication, in which you define how the user s credentials are validated and the user s profile data and roles are loaded. This custom security is a model that you can adapt to use any existing security tables or services that already exist in your organization. The framework will rely on Windows itself to handle impersonation when using Windows integrated or AD security, and will handle impersonation itself when using custom authentication.
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Integrated Authorization
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Applications also need to be able to authorize the user to perform (or not perform) certain operations, or view (or not view) certain data. Such authorization is typically handled by associating users with roles, and then indicating which roles are allowed or disallowed for specific behaviors.
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s Note Authorization is just another type of business logic. The decisions about what a user can and can t do or can and can t see within the application are business decisions. Although the framework will work with the .NET Framework classes that support authentication, it s up to the business objects to implement the rules themselves.
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Earlier, I discussed authentication and how the framework will support both Windows integrated or AD authentication, and custom authentication. Either way, the result of authentication is that the application has access to the list of roles (or groups) to which the user belongs. This information can be used by the application to authorize the user as defined by the business. While authorization can be implemented manually within the application s business code, the business framework can help formalize the process in some cases. Specifically, objects must use the user s role information to restrict what properties the user can view and edit. There are also common behaviors such as loading, deleting, and saving an object that are subject to authorization. As with validation rules, authorization rules can be distilled to a set of fairly simple yes/no answers. Either a user can or can t read a given property. The business framework will include code to help a business object developer easily restrict which object properties a user can or can t read or edit. In s 7 and 8, you ll also see a common pattern that can be implemented by all business objects to control whether an object can be retrieved, deleted, or saved. Not only does this business object need access to this authorization information, but the UI does as well. Ideally, a good UI will change its display based on how the current user is allowed to interact with an object. To support this concept, the business framework will help the business objects expose the authorization rules such that they are accessible to the UI layer without duplicating the authorization rules themselves.
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2. Juval Lowy, Unify the Role-Based Security Models for Enterprise and Application Domains with .NET, (MSDN, May 2002). See http://msdn.microsoft.com/msdnmag/issues/02/05/rolesec.
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