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The sad reality is that many applications have no clearly defined logical architecture. Often the logical architecture merely defaults to the number of physical tiers. This lack of a formal, logical design causes problems because it reduces flexibility. If a system is designed to operate in two or three physical tiers, then changing the number of physical tiers at a later date is typically very difficult. However, if you start by creating a logical architecture of three layers, you can switch more easily between one, two, or three physical tiers later on. Additionally, having clean separation between these layers makes your application more maintainable, because changing one layer often has minimal impact on the other layers. Nowhere is this more true than with the Interface layer (sometimes called the UI or Presentation layer), where the ability to switch between Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF), Windows Forms, Web Forms, ASP.NET MVC, and workflow and service-based interfaces is critical. The flexibility to choose your physical architecture is important because the benefits gained by employing a physical n-tier architecture are different from those gained by employing a logical nlayer architecture. A properly designed logical n-layer architecture provides the following benefits: Logically organized code Easier maintenance Better reuse of code Better team-development experience Higher clarity in coding On the other hand, a properly chosen physical n-tier architecture can provide the following benefits: Performance Scalability Fault tolerance Security It goes almost without saying that if the physical or logical architecture of an application is designed poorly, there will be a risk of damaging the things that would have been improved had the job been done well.
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N-Tier and SOA
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It is important to realize that a physical service-oriented architecture is not the same as an n-tier architecture. In fact, the two concepts can be complementary. It is also important to know that the concept of a logical n-layer architecture is the same in SOA as in any other type of application model. In logical n-layer models, a service should have the same layers as any other application: Interface, Business, and Data. In a logical n-layer model, the Interface layer consists of XML messages, but that s not a lot different from the HTML used in a web-based Interface layer. The Business layer is much the same as in any other application; it contains the business logic and behaviors that make the service useful. The data layer is also much the same as in any other application, in that it stores and retrieves data as necessary. However, the physical n-tier model might not appear to translate to the SOA world at all. Some people would say that SOA makes n-tier concepts totally obsolete, but I disagree. SOA has an important set of goals around loose coupling, reuse of functionality, and open communication. An n-tier client/ server architecture has a complementary set of goals around performance, avoiding duplication of code, and targeted functionality. The reality is that both models are useful, and they complement each other.
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CHAPTER 1 DIS TRIBUTED ARC HITE CTURE
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For example, you might use a service-oriented model to create a service that is available on the Internet. However, the service implementation might be n-tier, with the service interface on the web server and parts of the business implementation running on a separate application server. The result is a reusable service that enjoys high performance and security and avoids duplication of code.
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Complexity
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Experienced designers and developers often view a good n-tier architecture as a way of simplifying an application and reducing complexity, but this isn t necessarily the case. It s important to recognize that n-tier designs are typically more complex than single-tier designs. Even novice developers can visualize the design of a form or a page that retrieves data from a file and displays it to the user, but novice developers often struggle with 2-tier designs and are hopelessly lost in an n-tier environment. With sufficient experience, architects and developers do typically find that the organization and structure of an n-tier model reduces complexity for large applications. However, even a veteran n-tier developer will often find it easier to avoid n-tier models when creating a simple form to display some simple data. The point here is that n-tier architectures only simplify the process for large applications or complex environments. They can easily complicate matters if all you re trying to do is create a small application with a few forms that will be running on someone s desktop computer. (Of course, if that desktop computer is one of hundreds or thousands in a global organization, then the environment may be so complex that an n-tier solution provides simplicity.) In short, n-tier architectures help to decrease or manage complexity when any of these are true: The application is large or complex. The application is one of many similar or related applications that, when combined, may be large or complex. The environment (including deployment, support, and other factors) is large or complex. On the other hand, n-tier architectures can increase complexity when all of these are true: The application is small or relatively simple. The application isn t part of a larger group of enterprise applications that are similar or related. The environment isn t complex. Something to remember is that even a small application is likely to grow, and even a simple environment often becomes more complex over time. The more successful your application, the more likely that one or both of these will happen. If you find yourself on the edge of choosing an n-tier solution, it s typically best to go with it. You should expect and plan for growth. This discussion illustrates why n-tier applications are viewed as relatively complex. A lot of factors both technical and nontechnical must be taken into account. Unfortunately, it isn t possible to say definitively when n-tier does and doesn t fit. In the end, it s a judgment call that you, as an application architect, must make, based on the factors that affect your particular organization, environment, and development team.
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