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Creation PDF417 in C# A Short Primer on Generics

A Short Primer on Generics
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Generic types are a feature introduced in .NET 2.0. A generic type is a template that defines a set of behaviors but the specific data type is specified when the type is used rather than when it is created. Perhaps an example will help. Consider the ArrayList collection type. It provides powerful list behaviors but it stores all its items as type object. While you can wrap an ArrayList with a strongly typed class or create your own collection type in many different ways, the items in the list are always stored in memory as type object. The new List<T> collection type has the same behaviors as ArrayList but it is strongly typed all the way to its core. The type of the indexer, enumerator, Remove(), and other methods are all defined by the generic type parameter, T. Even better, the items in the list are stored in memory as type T, not type object. So what is T It is the type provided when the List<T> is created: List<int> myList = new List<int>(); In this case, T is int, meaning that myList is a strongly typed list of int values. The public properties and methods of myList are all of type int, and the values it contains are stored internally as int values. Not only do generic types offer type safety due to their strongly typed nature, but they typically offer substantial performance benefits because they avoid storing values as type object.
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Strongly Typed Collections of Child Objects
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Sadly, the basic functionality provided by even the generic collection classes isn t enough to integrate fully with the rest of the framework. The business framework supports a set of relatively advanced features such as validation and n-level undo capabilities. Supporting these features requires that collections of child objects interact with the parent object and the objects contained in the collection in ways not implemented by the basic collection and list classes provided by .NET. For example, a collection of child objects needs to be able to indicate if any of the objects it contains have been changed. Although the business object developer could easily write code to loop through the child objects to discover whether any are marked as dirty, it makes a lot more sense to put this functionality into the framework s collection object. That way the feature is simply available for use. The same is true with validity: if any child object is invalid, the collection should be able to report that it s invalid. If all child objects are valid, the collection should report itself as being valid. As with the business objects themselves, the goal of the business framework is to make the creation of a strongly typed collection as close to normal .NET programming as possible, while allowing the framework to provide extra capabilities common to all business objects. What I m defining here are two sets of behaviors: one for business objects (parent and/or child) and one for collections of business objects. Though business objects will be the more complex of the two, collection objects will also include some very interesting functionality.
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N-Level Undo Capability
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Many Windows applications provide users with an interface that includes OK and Cancel buttons (or some variation on that theme). When the user clicks an OK button, the expectation is that any
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work the user has done will be saved. Likewise, when the user clicks a Cancel button, he expects that any changes he s made will be reversed or undone. Simple applications can often deliver this functionality by saving the data to a database when users click OK and discarding the data when they click Cancel. For slightly more complex applications, the application must be able to undo any editing on a single object when the user presses the Esc key. (This is the case for a row of data being edited in a DataGridView: if the user presses Esc, the row of data should restore its original values.) When applications become much more complex, however, these approaches won t work. Instead of simply undoing the changes to a single row of data in real time, you may need to be able to undo the changes to a row of data at some later stage.
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