vb.net data matrix code Understanding Generic Overloaded Operators in VB.NET

Generator DataMatrix in VB.NET Understanding Generic Overloaded Operators

Understanding Generic Overloaded Operators
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There is one further important way in which code doesn t automatically become generic in F#: when you use overloaded operators such as +, -, *, and /, or overloaded conversion functions such as float and int64. For example, the following is not a generic function: let twice x = (x + x)
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CHAPTER 5 MASTERING TYPES AND GENERICS
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In the absence of further information, the type of this function is as follows: val twice : int -> int This is because the overloaded operator + defaults to operating on integers. If you add type annotations or further type constraints, you can force the function to operate on any type supporting the overloaded + operator: let twiceFloat (x:float) = x + x val twiceFloat : float -> float The information that resolves a use of an overloaded operator can come after the use of the operator: let threeTimes x = (x + x + x) let sixTimesInt64 (x:int64) = threeTimes x + threeTimes x val threeTimes : int64 -> int64 val sixTimesInt64 : int64 -> int64 Note how the constraint in the definition of sixTimesInt64 is the only mention of int64 and affects the type of threeTimes. The technical explanation is that overloaded operators such as + give rise to floating constraints, which can be resolved later in the type-inference scope.
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Summary
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F# is a typed language, and F# programmers often use types in sophisticated ways. In this chapter, you learned about the foundations of types, focusing on how types are used in functional programming and on generics and subtyping in particular. The next chapter covers the related topics of object-oriented and modular programming in F#.
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CHAPTER6
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Working with Objects and Modules
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s 2 through 5 dealt with the basic constructs of F# functional and imperative programming, and by now we trust you re familiar with the foundational concepts and techniques of practical, small-scale F# programming. This chapter covers language constructs related to object-oriented (OO) programming. We assume some familiarity with the basic concepts of OO programming, although you may notice that our discussion of objects deliberately deemphasizes techniques such as implementation inheritance. The first part of this chapter focuses on OO programming with concrete types. You re then introduced to the notion of object interface types and some simple techniques to implement them. The chapter covers more advanced techniques to implement objects using function parameters, delegation, and implementation inheritance. Finally, it covers the related topics of modules (which are simple containers of functions and values) and extensions (in other words, how to add ad hoc dot-notation to existing modules and types). 7 covers the topic of encapsulation.
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Getting Started with Objects and Members
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One of the most important activities of OO programming is defining concrete types equipped with dotnotation. A concrete type has fixed behavior: that is, it uses the same member implementations for each concrete value of the type. You ve already met many important concrete types, such as integers, lists, strings, and records (introduced in 3). It s easy to add OO members to concrete types. Listing 6-1 shows an example. Listing 6-1. A Vector2D Type with Object-Oriented Members /// Two-dimensional vectors type Vector2D = { DX: float; DY: float } /// Get the length of the vector member v.Length = sqrt(v.DX * v.DX + v.DY * v.DY) /// Get a vector scaled by the given factor member v.Scale(k) = { DX=k*v.DX; DY=k*v.DY } /// Return a vector shifted by the given delta in the X coordinate member v.ShiftX(x) = { v with DX=v.DX+x } /// Return a vector shifted by the given delta in the Y coordinate member v.ShiftY(y) = { v with DY=v.DY+y }
CHAPTER 6 WORKING WITH OBJECTS AND MODULES
/// Return a vector shifted by the given distance in both coordinates member v.ShiftXY(x,y) = { DX=v.DX+x; DY=v.DY+y } /// Get the zero vector static member Zero = { DX=0.0; DY=0.0 } /// Return a constant vector along the X axis static member ConstX(dx) = { DX=dx; DY=0.0 } /// Return a constant vector along the Y axis static member ConstY(dy) = { DX=0.0; DY=dy } You can use the properties and methods of this type as follows: > let v = {DX = 3.0; DY=4.0 };; val v : Vector2D > v.Length;; val it : float = 5.0 > v.Scale(2.0).Length;; val it : float = 10.0 > Vector2D.ConstX(3.0);; val it : Vector2D = {DX = 3.0; DY = 0.0} As usual, it s useful to look at inferred types to understand a type definition. Here are the inferred types for the Vector2D type definition of Listing 6-1. type Vector2D = { DX: float; DY: float } member Length : float member Scale : k:float -> Vector2D member ShiftX : x:float -> Vector2D member ShiftY : y:float -> Vector2D member ShiftXY : x:float * y:float -> Vector2D static member Zero : Vector2D static member ConstX : dx:float -> Vector2D static member ConstY : dy:float -> Vector2D You can see that the Vector2D type contains the following: A collection of record fields One instance property (Length) Four instance methods (Scale, ShiftX, ShiftY, ShiftXY) One static property (Zero) Two static methods (ConstX, ConstY)
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